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Getting to Scale

How to Bring Development Solutions to Millions of Poor People

edited by Laurence Chandy, Akio Hosono, Homi Kharas, and Johannes Linn

Publication Year: 2013

The global development community is teeming with different ideas and interventions to improve the lives of the world's poorest people. Whether these succeed in having a transformative impact depends not just on their individual brilliance but on whether they can be brought to a scale where they reach millions of poor people.

Getting to Scale explores what it takes to expand the reach of development solutions beyond an individual village or pilot program so they serve poor people everywhere. Each chapter documents one or more contemporary case studies, which together provide a body of evidence on how scale can be pursued. The book suggests that the challenge of scaling up can be divided into two solutions: financing interventions at scale, and managing delivery to large numbers of beneficiaries. Neither governments, donors, charities, nor corporations are usually capable of overcoming these twin challenges alone, indicating that partnerships are key to success.

Scaling up is mission critical if extreme poverty is to be vanquished in our lifetime. Getting to Scale provides an invaluable resource for development practitioners, analysts, and students on a topic that remains largely unexplored and poorly understood. Contributors: Tessa Bold (Goethe University, Frankfurt), Wolfgang Fengler (World Bank, Nairobi), David Gartner (Arizona State University), Shunichiro Honda (JICA Research Institute), Michael Joseph (Vodafone), Hiroshi Kato (JICA), Mwangi Kimenyi (Brookings), Michael Kubzansky (Monitor Inclusive Markets), Germano Mwabu (University of Nairobi), Jane Nelson (Harvard Kennedy School), Alice Ng'ang'a (Strathmore University, Nairobi), Justin Sandefur (Center for Global Development), Pauline Vaughan (consultant), Chris West (Shell Foundation)

Published by: Brookings Institution Press

Front Cover

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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-viii

In 2004 the World Bank and Chinese government co-hosted a major conference in Shanghai to identify lessons on delivering global development solutions at scale. In the ensuing decade, a small group of development thinkers and practitioners has sought to explore this topic further. ...

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1. Overview: The Challenge of Reaching Scale

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pp. 1-32

The challenges of global development can be counted in millions, if not billions: 2 million preventable infant deaths a year from pneumonia and diarrhea, 61 million children out of school, 850 million malnourished people, a billion people living in city slums, 1.3 billion people without access to electricity, 1.5 billion people living in conflict-affected states, ...

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2. Why Business Models Matter

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pp. 33-68

In the last decade, several events have conspired to substantially raise the level of effort and attention to private-sector-led approaches to addressing development needs. C. K. Prahalad’s Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid provided an important analytic underpinning, but probably more influential has been the rise of commercially viable microfinance ...

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3. From Scaled-Up Budgets to Scaled-Up Impact: A Decade of Rising Foreign Aid in Review

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pp. 69-102

The first decade of the twenty-first century saw a rapid increase in official aid flows (figure 3-1). From 2000 to 2010 net annual official development assistance (ODA) from countries of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD DAC) and multilateral agencies increased over 60 percent, ...

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4. Scaling Up Impact: Vertical Funds and Innovative Governance

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pp. 103-137

The challenge of scaling up for development requires innovative institutions with the capacity to leverage the contributions of diverse stakeholders, to support truly country-driven strategies, and to closely link financing to results. This chapter addresses the question of whether large-scale development impact can be achieved by channeling aid resources ...

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5. Incentives and Accountability for Scaling Up

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pp. 138-164

The scaling up of successful development interventions involves an iterative cycle of innovation, knowledge management, and expansion or replication.1 Experience shows that successful scaling up requires driving forces (drivers) that push the process forward and the creation of spaces—or the removal of obstacles— ...

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6. Angel Investment: Enterprise Solutions to Scale

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pp. 165-188

When Shell Foundation (SF) was established in 2000 we had ambitious objectives to catalyze scalable and sustainable solutions to global development challenges. We set about doing this in ways that were new at the time, by pioneering an enterprise-based approach and concentrating our efforts on tackling social and environmental issues, ...

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7. Scaling Up through Disruptive Business Models: The Inside Story of Mobile Money in Kenya

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pp. 189-219

The M-PESA mobile money service was launched in Kenya in 2007 to provide basic financial services to a largely unbanked population. Reaching 50 percent of Kenyan adults in less than two years, M-PESA experienced an unprecedented rate of adoption, with 10,000 new customers registering for the service daily. ...

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8. Meeting the Demand of the Poor: Two Cases of Business-Led Scaling Up at the Base of the Pyramid

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pp. 220-235

The base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) perspective has been gaining influence in business and international development circles since C. K. Prahalad and S. L. Hart and other proponents articulated it.1 Underlying this trend is the belief that firms can identify innovative, commercially viable solutions to respond to the needs of the poor. ...

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9. Scaling Up South-South Cooperation through Triangular Cooperation: The Japanese Experience

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pp. 236-261

In recent years, many developing countries, particularly emerging donors, have become more actively engaged in development cooperation. South-South cooperation (SSC) was recognized as an important form of development cooperation in the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in November 2011.1 ...

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10. Institutional Challenges to Scaling Up Learning in Kenya

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pp. 262-276

Education is a fundamental component of the development process, and governments in developing countries invest heavily in education. Despite this commitment, learning outcomes remain poor in low-income countries. In Kenya, a highly publicized study by the advocacy organization Uwezo demonstrates the severity of the learning crisis, ...

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11. Scaling Up in Education: School-Base Management in Niger

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pp. 277-304

The implementation of a school-based management (SBM) policy in Niger offers ample lessons pertinent to the debate on scaling up development impact. The case involves the adaptation of an institutional model of primary school management to the specific and difficult environment of Niger; ...

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12. Scaling Up Impact through Public-Private Partnerships

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pp. 305-362

There is growing consensus among development practitioners, policymakers, and business leaders that public-private partnerships offer untapped potential for catalyzing and scaling effective development interventions. Such partnerships are not new. They have a long-standing and in some cases contested history both within developed countries and in the field of international development. ...


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pp. 363-364


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pp. 365-383

Series Page, Back Cover

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pp. 393-394

E-ISBN-13: 9780815724209
E-ISBN-10: 0815724209
Print-ISBN-13: 9780815724193

Page Count: 383
Publication Year: 2013