Force and Legitimacy in a Changing World
Publication Year: 2007
America's three most recent wars in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq have raised profound questions about when to use military force, for what purpose, and who should make the decision whether to go to war. These crucial questions have been debated around the world with increasing intensity, and by beginning to provide important answers, Beyond Preemption moves the debate forward in significant ways. During the past three years, the contributors to this volume have engaged in a global dialogue with political officials, military figures and strategists, and international lawyers from around the world on when and how to use force and in what way its use can best be legitimized. They found consensus that the world has changed so dramatically that much of the old way of thinking about when and how to go to use force to deal with new challenges has become largely obsolete. Drawing on these high-level discussions, Ivo Daalder and his colleagues make specific proposals for how to forge a new international consensus on the vexing questions about the use of force, including its preemptive use, to address today's interrelated threats of terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and humanitarian crises. In Beyond Preemption, the authors also consider the critical matter of how these strategies could be best legitimized and be made palatable to domestic audiences and the international community at large. Contributors include Bruce W. Jentleson (Duke University), Anne E. Kramer (Brookings Institution), Susan E. Rice (Brookings Institution), James B. Steinberg (Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin).
Published by: Brookings Institution Press
Table of Contents
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The decision on whether, when, and how to use military force is the most consequential a nation’s leaders can make. It is also, properly, a national decision—one of the most essential prerogatives of sovereignty. But as Americans and the world have been reminded in recent years, if a national decision is made without sufficient regard to whether its use of force has legitimacy in the eye sof the international community...
Chapter One: Beyond Preemption: An Overview
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The issues of force and legitimacy—of when to use military force, for what purpose, and who should decide—became highly contentious internationally as a result of three developments: the Kosovo campaign of 1999, the terrorist attacks of September 2001, and the Iraq war of 2003. Each of these events raised difficult questions about the continued applicability of the international framework governing the use of force. That framework, enshrined in the United Nations Charter signed at the end of the Second World War, was...
Chapter Two: Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Use of Force
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The Bush administration’s National Security Strategy Report of 2002 touched off a vigorous debate in the United States and abroad over whether and when it is appropriate touse force other than in response to an attack (imminent or actual). In the report...
Chapter Three: Military Force against Terrorism: Questions of Legitimacy, Dilemmas of Efficacy
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It is true that terrorism goes way back in history, “as far back as does human conflict itself,” as Caleb Carr has written.1 It also is true that much of the world had been suffering from terrorism for along time before September 11.2 Still, the issue did change dramatically after the United States made it its top national security priority and the Bush administration decided on its particular “war on terrorism” approach...
Chapter Four: The Evolution of Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect
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In the middle months of 1944, Soviet, British, Chinese, and American statesmen met in Washington to begin to design a postwar architecture that could secure lasting peace. These officials were not quixotic utopians expecting their words on paper to deter future wars. Rather, their deliberations, and those that followed until the June 1945 signing of the UN Charter, presumed that power would remain in the foreground of interstate relations and be shared among strong states. Only by accepting the privileged position of the strong states could the...
Chapter Five: What the World Thinks
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The crucial threats to international peace and security—terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and gross violations of human rights—as described in detail in the preceding chapters, all challenge the rules currently governing the use of force enshrined in the 1945 United Nations Charter. In order to address these challenges, new cooperative strategies must be developed that will meet the twin tests of legitimacy and efficacy. To pass these tests, any set of proposals must not only satisfy U.S. security and...
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Page Count: 190
Publication Year: 2007