Policy and Choice
Public Finance through the Lens of Behavioral Economics
Publication Year: 2010
Traditional public finance provides a powerful framework for policy analysis, but it relies on a model of human behavior that the new science of behavioral economics increasingly calls into question. In Policy and Choice economists William Congdon, Jeffrey Kling, and Sendhil Mullainathan argue that public finance not only can incorporate many lessons of behavioral economics but also can serve as a solid foundation from which to apply insights from psychology to questions of economic policy.
The authors revisit the core questions of public finance, armed with a richer perspective on human behavior. They do not merely apply findings from psychology to specific economic problems; instead, they explore how psychological factors actually reshape core concepts in public finance such as moral hazard, deadweight loss, and incentives.
Part one sets the stage for integrating behavioral economics into public finance by interpreting the evidence from psychology and developing a framework for applying it to questions in public finance. In part two, the authors apply that framework to specific topics in public finance, including social insurance, externalities and public goods, income support and redistribution, and taxation.
In doing so, the authors build a unified analytical approach that encompasses both traditional policy levers, such as taxes and subsidies, and more psychologically informed instruments. The net result of this innovative approach is a fully behavioral public finance, an integration of psychology and the economics of the public sector that is explicit, systematic, rigorous, and realistic.
Published by: Brookings Institution Press
Table of Contents
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When should the government intervene in the economy? When do markets fail? How do we craft policies that maximize social welfare? How do we design policies to minimize unintended consequences? Traditional public finance provides a powerful framework to tackle those questions. This frame-work, however, relies on an overly simple model of human behavior. This book revisits the core questions of public finance but with a psychologically richer per-...
Part I: Psychology and the Foundations of Public Finance
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In part 1, we cover some basic lessons of behavioral economics before applying those lessons to topics in public finance in part 2. First, we review what the lessons of behavioral economics are, examining some of the main findings from psychology and behavioral economics, and what they imply for our under-standing of preferences and choice. Second, we develop a conceptual framework for integrating behavioral economics and public finance that will pay dividends ...
Psychology and Economics
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What do people want? Do they even know? How do they make choices, big and small? Answers to questions like theseâhow individuals form preferences, how they make decisionsâguide how economists think about the world. No matter how far removed the immediate questions of study in any particular fieldâmacroeconomics, finance, trade ...
Behavioral Economics and Public Finance
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Even with the simplifying assumptions that economics usually makes about how individuals form preferences and make choicesâperfect optimization, self-interest, and so onâthe rigorous analysis of public policy questions is a challenging endeavor. Frame questions too narrowly, such as by asking whether a particular policy works or not, and the analysis can miss larger issues, such as whether the policy was a good idea to start with. Fail to anticipate the ways that individuals will respond to the incentives that policies ...
Part II: Behavioral Economics and Public Finance in Practice
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Having extracted the relevant elements from psychological research and developed a framework for behavioral analysis in part 1, we can now examine topics in public finance through the lens of behavioral economics. Our examination focuses on the policy problems usually considered in traditional public finance. First we address market failures due to both information asymmetries and externalities including public goods. Then we tackle issues in pov-...
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The U.S. government has been described, with tongue only slightly in cheek, as âan insurance company with an army.â1 In terms of dollars spent, that description is not far off. In recent years Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid alone have accounted for about 40 percent of all federal government spending, and while those programs are far and away the largest social insurance programs, they are not the only ones. Unemployment ...
Externalities and Public Goods
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It has been famously labeled an inconvenient truth: the burning of fossil fuels, along with a number of other activities that modern economies have become accustomed to or depend upon, is contributing to global climate change.1 If cur-rent patterns of use continue unabated, the environmental, social, and economic consequences of global warming may be severe.2 As a result, the matter of how to address this issue has been a staple of policy debates both in the United States ...
Poverty and Inequality
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Roughly one in seven Americans, more than 43 million people, lived in poverty in 2009.1 In the United States, poverty is defined as having a low level of market income in absolute termsâthat is, as living below the poverty line. For a family of four, for example, that meant a total family income of less than $21,756. Incomes at that low level both reflect and create undesirable conditions, not only for individuals-...
Taxation and Revenue
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Running a government is expensive. Correcting for market failures, providing public goods, guaranteeing social insurance, and redistributing income and sustaining antipoverty effortsâfunctions of government within the purview of public financeâall involve various expenditures. Increasing the expense are functions of government that are outside the scope of public finance, such as administering court systems, maintaining regulatory-...
Appendix A: Preference, Choice, and Welfare
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Appendix B: Choice, Welfare, and Policy
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Page Count: 247
Publication Year: 2010