Raging Against the Machine
Political Opposition Under Authoritarianism in Egypt
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Syracuse University Press
Cover, Front Flap
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, About the Author
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This book is a substantially revised version of my doctoral dissertation on politics and opposition in Egypt. What fi rst comes to my mind is the place where I have lived for almost fi fteen years and where the idea to write this book has materialized. After having worked in the Middle East Section at Tübingen’s Political Science Department in several positions ...
Note on Transliteration
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To make this book more accessible to the non-Arabic reader, I have used, throughout the text, the spelling of Arabic names (of persons, geo-graphic locations, organizations, such as, for example, Tagammu, Nasser) and terms (e.g., ulema, sunni) as they are found in the English-speaking ...
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Februar y 11, 2011, marked a decisive moment in Egypt’s modern history, witnessing the fall of the “Pharaoh” Hosni Mubarak after eighteen days of a popular mass uprising. The January 25 uprising marked the fall of one of the longest-serving autocrats in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and triggered a sea change in Egypt’s political life. The events ...
1. Regime and Opposition
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Political opposition in an authoritarian regime has a positive reputation among Western media and policymakers: he who opposes the dictator—if not an Islamist—is, at least implicitly, considered a democratic force. This perception includes the notion that the opposition challenges government in its very core, that is, its claim to execute decision making in the polity. ...
2. Loyal Opposition
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Party politics in Egypt is a rather new phenomenon compared with other political systems in the region.1 Egypt under Mubarak had a non-competitive multiparty system that has emanated from political liberaliza-tion initiated by Anwar Sadat in the second half of the 1970s. This process was accompanied by liberalization in the economic sphere that has come ...
3. Tolerated Opposition
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Opposition parties have constituted the landscape of regime-loyal oppo-sition activism in Egypt. There was a clear modus vivendi for the relation-ship between the regime and the respective opposition actors. The rules, both formal and informal, of that activism were quite established, though subject to adaptation and orchestration from above. In general, authori-...
4. Anti-System Opposition
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The Islamist movement constitutes the strongest political force in Egyp-tian politics. Political Islam in Mubarak’s Egypt was composed of three forms of movement organizations: a moderate Islamist mass movement based on strong popular backing, a number of clandestine groups and would-be parties that have been loosely associated with the Brotherhood-...
5. Political Institutions between Contestation and Control
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Whereas the previous empirical chapters have focused on the agents of contestation, this section adopts a structuralist perspective and examines the institutionalized channels governing contentious relations between the regime and its various forms of oppositions. They have been estab-lished from above with the aim of controlling society but emerged into ...
6. The Transformationof Contentious Politics
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Egypt’s political system under Mubarak stands out among liberalized authoritarian regimes in that it inhabited a large, colorful, and heteroge-neous landscape of political opposition. Since the late 1970s, a multiparty system has emerged that has become increasingly fragmented over the thirty-fi ve years of its existence; the 1990s saw the rise of private voluntary ...
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Back Flap, Back Cover
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Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Modern Intellectual and Political History of the Middle East
Series Editor Byline: Mehrzad Boroujerdi