The Rise of American High School Sports and the Search for Control,1880-1930
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Syracuse University Press
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Front Flap, Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication, About the Author
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Ill us t r at io n s
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...3. Inaugural University of Illinois–sponsored track and fi eld tournament, 6. Pioneering high school intersectional football game, 1902 ✦ 7511. Phillips High girls racing in the school’s annual fi eld day, 1907 ✦ 15912. Marshall High School girls’ indoor baseball team, 1912 ✦ 16821. The National Catholic Interscholastic Basketball Tournament, ...
P r e f ac e
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High school sports from their beginnings in the late nineteenth century have played an outsize role in the US educational system and have subtly permeated the fabric of our society to such a degree that for most Ameri-cans, their presence seems to go unnoticed next to the far more media-grabbing collegiate and professional sports. In 2008 there were slightly ...
Ack no w l e d g me n t s
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Although sitting before a blank computer screen and with a pile of notes may seem like a lonely endeavor at times, in this history project I have been involved with a host of people—family, friends, colleagues in the fi eld, and librarians and archivists—all of whom have helped me in mat-My colleagues in sport history who have given their assistance have ...
P A R T O N EStudent Initiativeand Adult Alliances,1880–1900
1Ba seba l l a n d Fo o t ba l lPio n e e r Hig h Sc h o o l Spo r t s
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High school sports fi rst emerged in the boarding schools of the East. They began as casual sports and games, usually ball games, played by students as far back as the late 1700s. The earliest boarding schools were largely located in New England, namely, Atkinson Academy and Phillips Exeter, both in New Hampshire, and Lawrence Academy, Deerfi eld Acad-...
2Th e R i s e o f Sc h o o l bo yTr ac k a n d Te n n i s
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Interscholastic sports in the 1890s experienced an explosive growth, one that was haphazard, messy, and inchoate. Students and educational authorities were pioneering the establishment of a new sports institu-tion, and the directions were not always clear and sure on how it should be done. The students took the lead in forming teams and leagues, and ...
3Th e Ph y s ic a l Ed uc at io nMo v e men t a n d t h e Ca mpa ig nfo r Co n t r o l
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From approximately 1880 to 1900, interscholastic sports in America were largely under student initiation and direction. In the next decade, educa-tional reformers brought student athletics under their regulatory control, not only to end reputed abuses in interscholastic sports but also to make Physical education reformers in the high schools followed the col-...
P A R T T W OEstablishment ofInstitutional Control,1900–1920
4Ed uc at or s Impo s eIn s t i t u t io na l Co n t r o l
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The establishment of leagues and state associations by educators in the years after 1900 bringing about institutional control over interscholastic sports was neither seamless nor uniform across the nation. In most areas of the country, educator-sponsored high school leagues were formed in most big cities and in many rural areas, usually two ways, from whole cloth or ...
5St u d en t R esis t a nceto C o n t r o l a n d R e f o r m
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The nationwide reform of governance in interscholastic sports with the imposition of adult-sponsored leagues and state associations saw students in most areas acquiesce to the new faculty control and passively accept the new order of things. In many areas, however, educators faced persistent student resistance, stiffened by rebellious high school Greek-letter societ-...
6Wi n t e r In d o or Spor t sFi ll t h e Vo i d
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The construction of gymnasiums in the high schools during the 1890s laid the foundation for the development of indoor sports, particularly bas-ketball. Educators by this time saw physical education as intrinsic to the development of American high school youth. Gymnasiums were originally designed for gymnastics and calisthenics instruction, but games soon took ...
7Ne w Ou t d oo r Spo r t s A d va nc et h e Ed uc at io n a l Mi s s io n
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Whereas indoor sports were introduced primarily to provide game com-petition in lieu of the dull routines of physical exercise, new outdoor sports were introduced for a variety of reasons. Sometimes the students chose the sport, as in golf, but the sport’s nature meant that outside organizations, namely, private golf clubs, played a huge role in helping disseminate the ...
8Th e Ne w At hle t ic Gi r la n d In t e r s c h o l a s t ic Spo r t s
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The fi rst decade of the twentieth century represented a bold new experi-unprecedented interest in sports and leisure, as football, baseball, boxing, and track and fi eld fl ourished as never before. A plethora of other sports also emerged as popular pastimes and drew considerable spectator inter-est, notably basketball, golf, tennis, bowling, and swimming. At the same ...
P A R T T H R E ETriumph ofNational Governance,1920–1930
9In t e r s c h o l a s t ic s a n d t h eGo ld e n Ag e o f Spo r t s
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The 1920s is considered the golden age of sport, an era that gave us an unprecedented number of sports titans—Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in baseball, Red Grange in football, Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney in box-ing, Bobby Jones and Walter Hagen in golf, Helen Wills and Bill Tilden in tennis, and Paavo Nurmi in track and fi eld. At all levels of competition—...
10Cr e at io n o f Mili t a r y Spo r t sin t h e Se c o nd a r y Sc h o o l s
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Military sports in the secondary schools substantially emerged after America’s entrance into World War I, when the country awoke to the need for military preparedness. During the war, high schools, as well as univer-sities and colleges, began to train students not only in rifl e marksmanship and physical conditioning but also in drill (marching and handling rifl es ...
11Th e P r i vat e a n d C at h o l icSc h o o l s ’ Pa r a lle l Wo r l d o fIn t e r s c h ol a s t ic Spor t s
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In the 1920s, as the public schools built and expanded their interscho-lastic sports programs, they established the models by which the private secular and religious schools built their sports programs. Private secu-lar schools were popularly called prep schools, as they were virtually all college-preparatory institutions. They predominated largely in the East, ...
12Gi r l s ’ In t e r s c h o l a s t icSpo r t s a n d t h e Ex ube r a nc eto Co mpe t e
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The role of competitive interscholastic sports for girls was one of the most contentious societal issues of the 1920s. Across the country, local boards of education and state-level high school athletic associations were infl uenced by two national developments in women’s athletics that pulled them in opposite directions over the suitability of girls participating in interscholas-...
13Th e S e pa r at e a n d U n e q ua lWo r l d o f A f r ic a n A me r ic a nIn t e r s c h ol a s t ic Spor t s
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African American high school sports came to fruition during the 1920s. The experience of African Americans in the creation of interscholastic sports was varied, depending on the section of the country. In the Deep South, black high schools suffered from rigid segregation and a white establishment that kept the black schools impoverished. Those schools ...
14Ne w Nat io n a l Go v e r n a nc e a n dt h e Tr iu mph o f t h e St at e Hig hSch o o l A s so c i at io ns
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The great expansion of interscholastic sports into a national scope during the 1920s was exhilarating to many fans of sports and helped immensely in making high school sports a major audience draw during the decade. But like the overheated economy of the 1920s, it was set to crash just like the stock market of October 1929. The crash for national tournaments ...
Epilog u e
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When the National Federation of State High School Athletic Associa-tions (now the National Federation of State High School Associations) in the early 1930s took over governance of all high school programs, bringing them under the purview of the secondary-school educational establish-ment, high school educators undoubtedly assumed it was a permanent ...
No t e s
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...1. Thomas D. Snyder and Sally A. Dillow, Digest of Education Statistics, 2010, 15, 19; National Federation of State High School Associations, “2007–2008 High School Athletics Participation Survey.” A clean number of total participants is not possible. The National Federation listed a total of 7,429,381 participants for the school year 2008–9, but 2. Timothy J. L. Chandler, review of Muscle and Manliness: The Rise of Sport in ...
Se l e c t e d Bi bl io gr a ph y
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Stagg, Amos Alonzo. Papers. Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library, Annual Reports of the Board of Education. Chicago: Board of Education, Beals, Frank L. “Military Training.” In Department of Education: Annual Report of the Superintendent of Schools for the Year Ending June 30, 1924, 45–46. Brammell, P. Roy. Intramural and Interscholastic Athletics: Bulletin 1932, No. 17, ...
Back Flap, Back Cover
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Page Count: 432
Illustrations: 34 black and white illustrations
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Sports and Entertainment
Series Editor Byline: Steven Riess