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Islamist Opposition in Authoritarian Regimes

The Party of Justice and Development in Morocco

Eva Wegner

Publication Year: 2011

Wegner traces the party’s choices through an analysis of organizational, ideological, and institutional constraints. Adopting a simple but novel perspective, Wegner distinguishes Islamist parties from other opposition parties because of their connection to a powerful social movement. The author shows how the PJD initially made major progress in electoral politics by building up a strong party organization, sustaining full support of the Islamist movement, and positioning itself as the only credible opposition party. Ultimately, the failure of the PJD to win elections was due to political concessions it made to secure its legality combined with a distancing from the Islamist movement. Based on extensive field research in Morocco in 2003 and 2007 and drawing upon personal interviews with members, candidates, and leaders of the PJD, Islamist Opposition in Authoritarian Regimes presents a meticulous and enlightening case study. Wegner enriches our understanding of electoral authoritarianism in Morocco and throughout the Arab- Islamic world.

Published by: Syracuse University Press

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-

Figures

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pp. ix-

Tables

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pp. xi-

Abbreviations

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pp. xii-xiii

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvii

This study began as a comparative project about the institutional integration of two social movements, the Islamist one in Morocco and the environmentalist one in Germany. In the back of my mind, I had the idea that ideology—religious or environmentalist—ultimately should not matter that much when a social movement organization enters into formal politic...

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Introduction: The Framework of the Study

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pp. xix-xlv

The Islamist Party of Justice and Development (PJD, Parti de la justice et du développement) was the projected winner of the Moroccan parliamentary elections in 2007. In the months before the elections, the Islamists were highly scrutinized. Whereas some feared the policies of an Islamist government...

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Political Institutions, Political Parties, and the Islamist Movement in Morocco

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pp. 1-31

The rule of the Moroccan Alaoui dynasty survived colonialism (French protectorate from 1912 to 1956) and subsequent independence. Its legitimacy is based on traditional, religious, and modern sources. The dynasty came to power in the seventeenth century, and it claims traditional religious legitimization with the...

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Party Institutionalization and Emancipation from the Islamist Movement

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pp. 32-71

Two interrelated influences aff ecting Islamist party choices are the party’s own organization and its relationship with the ISMO that brought it into being. At the beginning of a party’s life, leadership choices are unconstrained. How much this changes depends on the shape and value of the organization’s...

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The Regime Game

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pp. 72-94

Opposition parties in electoral authoritarian regimes need to change the rules and practices to gain political power through elections. These parties may at least want to criticize these rules and practices so as to remain credible. An opposition party that takes these regime limitations seriously and focuses on changing...

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Elections and Parliament

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pp. 95-122

The PJD did not make inroads in the regime game. An alternative approach for parties failing in the direct regime game is to focus more on popular support and wait for better conditions in the future, such as an increase in their popular support to an extent that they win even flawed elections or a weakening of the...

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Comparing Islamist Strategies in Jordan and Morocco

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pp. 123-143

How can the opposition make progress in the contest with a hegemonic authoritarian regime? As argued throughout this study, an opposition party has to choose its mobilization intensity and will aim to optimize its strategies on two levels: the regime level, where it has to choose how much to challenge the regime...

Appendix A. PJD 2004 National Congress Data

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pp. 147-

Appendix B. Profi le of PJD Electoral Candidates, 2002

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pp. 149-

Appendix C. List of Interviews with PJD Members: 2003, 2004, 2007

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pp. 151-152

References

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pp. 153-164

Index

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pp. 165-180


E-ISBN-13: 9780815651123
E-ISBN-10: 0815651120
Print-ISBN-13: 9780815632825
Print-ISBN-10: 0815632827

Page Count: 208
Publication Year: 2011