Citizenship and Its Exclusions
A Classical, Constitutional, and Critical Race Critique
Publication Year: 2010
&8220;A timely interrogation of our citizenship tropes. Román’s passionately demonstrates that the promise of citizenship has consistently fallen short on both historical and contemporary landscapes. Far from a warrant of inclusion and equality, citizenship has more often been used as cover for caste and subordination. Román’s looks to bring citizenship's lofty aspirations to an authentic attainment.”
Published by: NYU Press
Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
Preface and Acknowledgments
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I have long waited to undertake this project, and in fact it took more than a decade to complete. This apparently exceedingly long time frame was due in part to the fact that I needed such time to fully understand the scope and depth of this undertaking. It is a project that in various forms I have touched upon throughout most of my tenure as a legal...
1. Introduction: The Citizenship Construct
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Imagine that you reside in a country not unlike the United States, with a similar cultural, economic, racial, and ethnic mix. As in many other countries, the events of September 11, 2001, dramatically changed the lives of the inhabitants of your land. Your country passed a series of special laws specifically designed to enhance national security, and has joined the...
2. The Creation of the Concept: The Classical Period
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Originating in the minds of Athenian philosophers like Plato and Aristotle and political leaders like Solon and Lycurgus, the concept of citizenship served a pivotal role in the development of the Western world and of democratic order itself. Indeed, ever since the times of the ancient Greeks, citizenship was expressed as the right to be a formal member of the...
3. The City-States of the Dark Ages
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Since the beginning of the concept, citizenship was a critical element of nation building and the very development of democracy in the Western sense. It is therefore not surprising that citizenship has reflected, in form and content, the historical development of ancient territories into what eventually came to be known as nation-states. The concept of citizenship...
4. The Movement toward Nascent Nation-States
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As the previous chapter illustrated, the fall of the Roman Empire and the coming of the Dark Ages ushered in a new time and place for citizenship. Long gone was the notion that one had to be from a particular city in order to reap the benefits of citizenship. Also gone was the great Roman Empire that could, with little pause, bestow the status of citizen...
5. The Philosophical Influence of the Enlightenment
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Contemporary domestic citizenship theory was mightily influenced by the Enlightenment over and above the continuing pull of ancient Greco-Roman constructions, the legacy of the Dark Ages, and the writings of early pre-Renaissance theorists. Modern rhetorical constructions of citizenship followed Western notions of equality and focused on the mutuality...
6. The De Jure Subordinates
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As the preceding chapters demonstrate, Western societies have followed the pattern set by the ancient world concerning the citizenship construct. From the classical period to the Renaissance, influential theorists and politicians repeatedly extolled the virtues and necessity of equal citizenship within a democracy. Though the dominant discourse...
7. The De Facto Subordinates?
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This chapter examines the second, and more controversial, component of the theory of citizenship as it pertains to the United States. Specifically, the question posed here is whether there are in fact de facto subordinate citizens in the United States. In other words, this chapter questions whether certain groups in American society, such as African Americans, remain...
8. A New Vision of Citizenship?
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Unfortunately, not unlike the fictional tale set forth in the beginning of this book, the above hypothetical is based on actual events. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Supreme Court of the United States recognized certain constitutional rights for the detainees in Guantanamo Bay, but in doing so, further confirmed the disenfranchised status of millions of U.S. citizens living...
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About the Author
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Page Count: 224
Publication Year: 2010