Ghosts of Jim Crow
Ending Racism in Post-Racial America
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: NYU Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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I HAVE WRITTEN law textbooks used in colleges, universities, and law schools across the globe. I have been recognized as one of the top professors in the state of Maryland with the award of an endowed professorship, the oldest and most prestigious offered by the University of Maryland system....
Introduction: Understanding the Racial Paradigm
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FROM 1619, WHEN the first blacks arrived in the Jamestown, Virginia, settlement, racial inequality was imposed through law and maintained by practices.1 In a long history of racial oppression motivated by white desires for economic exploitation and justified by false perceptions of inferiority,...
Part I: Creating the Paradigm: Racial Hierarchy
1. Constructing Racial Categories from the Nation’s Founding to the Civil War
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RACIAL CATEGORIZATION HAS been an invaluable tool for facilitating aspects of the paradigm. Without such categorization, aspects of hierarchy and separation could not be implemented. Under the law, slaves had no personal legal rights, and free blacks received limited government...
2. Maintaining White Dominance during Reconstruction
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AFTER THE CIVIL War, slavery ended in name only. Black servitude continued, as vagrancy laws and laws governing black apprentices were clever strategies to perpetuate slavery. Sharecropping and strategies to reduce black field hands to economic dependency precluded a genuine free labor...
3. Preventing Black Excellence between Plessy and Brown
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DURING RECONSTRUCTION, BLACKS had been promised the equality guaranteed in the Constitution.2 Yet, by 1896, on the eve of the Plessy decision, that promise seemed to have been completely destroyed. Black political participation had been dismantled in southern states, where 90%...
Part II: Sustaining the Paradigm: White Isolation and Black Separation and Subordination
4. Maintaining Racial Segregation in Schools and Neighborhoods from Brown to the 21st Century
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FALSE NOTIONS OF white superiority/black inferiority fueled white desires for racial isolation that were supported by laws and case decisions beginning with Reconstruction. As blacks fought for integrated schools, housing, and public accommodations, white resistance increased. Most...
5. Victimizing Blacks in the 21st Century
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DESPITE PRONOUNCEMENTS TO the contrary, as Justice Ginsburg reminded us as the 20th century drew to a close and more than a half-century after Brown I declared an end to Jim Crow segregation, the desire by some whites for racial isolation, and the opportunity to victimize blacks, persists. These desires manifest themselves in a wide variety of areas such...
Part III: Ending the Paradigm: Building a Post-Racial America
6. Black Empowerment and Self-Help
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ERASING THE FALSE image of black inferiority will require increased economic, educational, and political empowerment of blacks, and massive black self-help efforts, particularly in emphasizing the importance of education and limiting the use of racism as an excuse for not trying or for misdirected efforts. This chapter challenges us to break down false notions...
7. Integration and Equality
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FOR BLACKS TODAY, opportunities are much better than they were under Jim Crow. The opportunities to attend college and professional schools have significantly increased. During Jim Crow, no opportunities existed in major colleges and universities in the South. Only a token number of spots opened annually at schools in the North, causing most to rely on a small...
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Table of Cases
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About the Author
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Page Count: 328
Publication Year: 2013