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Democratic Community

Nomos XXXV

John Chapman, Ian Shapiro

Publication Year: 1995

A state-of-the-art meditation on relations, theoretical and practical, among a familiar triad of themes: comunitarianism, liberalism, and democracy.
--American Political Science Review

A collection of distinguished contributors, from a wide range of disciplines, examine the implications of the resurgence of interest in community. The chapters in Democratic Community consider the fundamental issues that divide liberals and communitarians, as well as the structure of communities, the roles of freedom and democratic institutions in sustaining one another, the place of a democratic civil society in a democratic polity, and the contributions of feminist thinking.

This thirty-fifth volume in the American Society of Political and Legal Philosophy series is devoted, as is each volume in the series, to a single topic-- in this case, the implications for human nature and democratic theory of the resurgence of interest in community. Democratic Community deals not only with fundamental issues that divide liberals and communitarians, but is also concerned with the structure of communities, the roles of freedom and democratic institutions in sustaining one another, the place of a democratic civil society in a democratic polity, and the contributions of feminist thinking to the great debate. The collection of distinguished contributors, from a wide range of disciplines, includes: Richard J. Arneson (University of California, San Diego), Jean Baechler (University of Paris, Sorbonne), Christopher J. Berry (University of Glasgow), Robert A. Dahl (Yale University), Martin P. Golding (Duke University), Carol C. Gould (Stevens Institute of Technology), Amy Gutmann (Princeton University), Jane Mansbridge (Northwestern University), Kenneth Minogue (London School of Economics), Robert C. Post (University of California, Berkeley), David A. J. Richards (New York University), Gerald N. Rosenberg (University of Chicago), Bruce K. Rutherford (Yale University), Alan Ryan (Princeton University), and Carmen Sirianni (Brandeis University).

Published by: NYU Press

Title page, Copyright

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CONTENTS

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pp. vii-ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-

This thirty-fifth volume of NOMOS began with presentations and commentaries delivered at the meeting of The American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association in San Francisco, September 1990. ...

Contributors

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pp. xiiii-xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

Over the past two decades many Western political thinkers have been preoccupied with the confrontation between liberalism, institutionalized as modern welfare capitalism, and various communitarian philosophies of life. Some of these are deeply communalist and would transcend liberalism into participatory, ...

Part I: Liberalism And Communitarianism

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1. Individual, Group, and Democracy

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pp. 15-40

The three terms in the title may be considered the very essence of modernity and of the problems that face modern man. Since at least the 17th century, the question of "good political regime" has been raised in Europe. To the extent that experiences have accumulated, that reflections have deepened, ...

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2. Ideal Communities and the Problem of Moral Identity

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pp. 41-66

My aim is to make certain critical points about normativism, which is the belief that moral and political philosophy should demonstrate the basic practical rules for distributing goods so as to constitute a just society. Any modern theory of a perfect community is normativist in this sense. ...

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3. Shared Understanding and the Democratic Way of Life

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pp. 67-88

In a book of that title I coined the term "the idea of a democratic community" to encapsulate, and interrogate, a significant strain in contemporary political speculation.1 I sought to capture the essence of this by presenting this "idea" as, in a Hegelian dialectical sense, the preservative transcendence of liberalism. ...

Part II: Liberty, Autonomy, and Democratic Community

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4. The Liberal Community

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pp. 91-114

What follows is not meant to be the last word on the "liberal-communitarian debate."1 It is, however, an attempt to change the terms of that debate.2 My strategy is simple. Part I argues that the conflict between liberalism and communitarianism that the "debate" supposes is a figment of the imagination; ...

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5. Communities and the Liberal Community: Some Comments and Questions

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pp. 115-125

Ryan's chapter, "The Liberal Community," encompasses a great deal of subject matter for discussion. Here, I can only briefly consider two rather substantial issues: first, the relation of theories of the self and methodologies of social inquiry to moral and political commitments; and second, the concept of community ...

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6. The Disharmony of Democracy

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pp. 126-160

Does it make sense to be disappointed about the condition of democratic politics in the United States yet enthusiastic about democratic developments elsewhere in the world? I cheer Czechoslovakia on as it moves in a democratic direction. At the same time, I criticize party politics, public education, commercial television, ...

Part III: Democratic Community and The Constitution

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7. Between Democracy and Community: The Legal Constitution of Social Form

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pp. 163-190

I discuss the concept of "democratic community" from the specific perspective of the American legal system. This perspective, in Ronald Dworkin's elegant and accurate formulation, entails the continual effort interpretatively to grasp the internal point of social institutions.1 The enterprise is neither purely descriptive ...

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8. Liberal Democratic Community

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pp. 191-227

Communitarians cntloze liberal political philosophy on the ground that it is inhospitable to the value of community.1 No doubt several lines of thought converge at the point of this criticism, but I concentrate on a single objection that impresses me as sound. This communitarian objection holds that contemporary ...

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9. The Real World of Democratic Community

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pp. 228-256

Robert Post examines democratic community through the perspective of the American legal system, focusing on the Supreme Court and constitutional law. He understands democratic community as "a complex dialectic between ... two phases of the self and their corresponding social formations."1 ...

Part IV: Some Empirical Considerations

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10. Why All Democratic Countries Have Mixed Economies

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pp. 259-282

I am going to argue here that democracy is incompatible with certain types of economic order. Although the most obvious contradiction is between democracy and a socialist command economy, the main thrust of my argument purports that democracy is also incompatible with a strictly free market economy. ...

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11. Learning Pluralism: Democracy and Diversity in Feminist Organizations

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pp. 283-312

With the beginning of its second wave, and especially its more radical variants since the late 1960s, feminism has been concerned with redefining democratic community on more participatory grounds. To this end organizational processes, deliberative styles, and communicative ethics have been refashioned. ...

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12. Can an Islamic Group Aid Democratization?

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pp. 313-336

When one thinks of opposition in a democracy, organizations such as the British Labor Party, the French Conservative Party, and the German Social Democratic Party come to mind. These share several characteristics: regular elections of leaders, annual conferences where party policy is debated, and some institutional mechanisms ...

Part V: Feminist Perspectives

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13. Feminism and Democratic Community

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pp. 339-395

Advocates of individualism tend to assume a zero-sum game, in which any advance in community entails a retreat in protecting individuality. Advocates of greater community tend to assume no tradeoff between these goods, ignoring the ways community ties undermine individual freedom. ...

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14. Feminism and Democratic Community Revisited

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pp. 396-413

What contribution can feminist theory make to the conception of a democratic community? In recent years, feminists have drawn on women's experiences as the basis for a reconstructed political theory. They have sought to revise or replace the models of contract, or of the marketplace, or of formal justice ...

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15. Political Theory and the Aims of Feminism

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pp. 414-422

Jane Mansbridge brings to our attention a literature she calls feminist, largely but not always quite recent, which she examines from the perspective of its possible contribution to the theoretical and practical discourse of democratic community. Her sympathetic yet critical review of this literature ...

INDEX

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pp. 423-451


E-ISBN-13: 9780814723630
E-ISBN-10: 0814723632
Print-ISBN-13: 9780814715079
Print-ISBN-10: 0814715079

Page Count: 584
Publication Year: 1995