The Origins and Onset of the Romanian Holocaust
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Wayne State University Press
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Th e Romanian Holocaust began in late June 1941. On the twenty-seventh of that month o´Čâ cers and soldiers of the Romanian 6th Cavalry Regiment executed 311 Jews (men, women, and children) at a place called St├ónca Ros-novanu in northeastern Romania. Next evening, June 28, in the nearby city of Ia┼či, the governmentÔÇÖs intelligence service, simulating an attack on Ger-...
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Th is is a brief study of the origins of the Romanian Holocaust and the fi rst mass killings of Jews by Romanian authorities. It addresses two questions. First, why did the Antonescu government set out to exterminate Jews, those who lived in Romania and those in areas annexed by Romania during the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II? Th e war, the invasion, ...
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Elie Wiesel spoke at the National Th eater in Ia┼či in late June 1991, mark-ing the fi ftieth anniversary of the pogrom and death trains. As he began, a woman sitting in the front row shouted out that he lied. Wiesel paused for a moment while she was escorted out of the building and then calmly went on speaking. It was the woman who lied, but what she said was not surprising ...
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Th e creation of Romania was advanced in 1859 when parliaments in the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia each elected Alexandru I. Cuza its prince. Independence came with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1877 and recognition of statehood by European powers was conferred in the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. Th e hopes of Jews for citizenship were elevated or beaten ...
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Jews have lived in the region now called Romania for centuries. Some were there before and others came during and following the Roman conquest of the early second century: from the Jewish Khazar state centered on the lower Volga from the eighth to the late tenth centuries and after being ex-pelled from Hungary in 1367 and Spain in 1492. From the fourteenth to ...
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Between the world wars public institutions to which Romanian Jews had appealed for relief from persecution or support in their struggle for political rights declined or disappeared, or, like the government, church, law courts, and press had become united against them. Benefi cial infl uences from the west, which had brought some advantages to Romanian Jews in the past, ...
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For Romanian Jews the turn of the century was a time of deepening eco-nomic hardships and unsettling news from abroad. In nearby Russia the nineteenth century went out and twentieth came in on waves of violence that swept across the Pale of Settlement leaving many Jews murdered and much property destroyed: in pogroms following Tsar Alexander IIÔÇÖs assas-...
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Max Gaer, a trade-school graduate and active Zionist, born in Ia┼či in 1911, recalled the spring of 1941 as a time of growing tensions in the Jewish com-munity. Engineer Mo┼če Her┼čcovici recalled that in the months before the war ÔÇťwe were soon afraid to go out on the streets, especially after the retreat of troops from Bessarabia, and even more after the abdication of Carol II ...
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Saturday, June 28, signs of trouble in Ia╚Öi: Aron Stievel, part owner of a textile factory with an o´Čâ ce on Strad─â Stefan cel Mare, described the Sab-bath morning as ÔÇťheavy with silence.ÔÇŁ Ordinarily he would have gone to the factory in order to pay workers but decided to have two of his Christian em-ployees take and distribute the money. Th ese two had told Stievel he should ...
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Arrangements to carry out General AntonescuÔÇÖs late Saturday night order that all Jews be deported from Ia┼či began to be carried out Sunday afternoon when killing in the chestur─â courtyard was most intense.1 Around 2:00 p.m. Prefect (district commander of gendarmes) Colonel Captaru was informed, ÔÇťon behalf of Gen. Stavrescu,ÔÇŁ that it was necessary to have Minister of In-...
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Th e burial of Jews murdered in the Ia┼či pogrom began Sunday morning June 29. Vlad Marievici, the cityÔÇÖs sanitation chief, on his way to work that morning counted nine cadavers lying in the streets. Because of the continu-ing violence he decided to keep his workers idle for the time being. Th e fi rst request for a truck came shortly before noon, that is, before the courtyard ...
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In 1990 I asked Dr. Caufman, at the time president of the Jewish commu-nity in Ia┼či, to help me set up interviews with survivors of the pogrom. He graciously accepted but warned me that each survivor would give a di´ČÇ erent account of what happened. True enough. Had I been further along in my research I could have told him that, by contrast, nearly every Romanian po-...
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In 1939ÔÇô40 Romania became a main trading partner of Germany, joined the German-Italian-Japan pact (November 1940), and began inviting German military missions into the country to build up its defenses against the Soviet Union.1 On their side German leaders, though they did not anticipate much in the way of military support from Romania in the upcoming war against ...
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Adrian Radu-Cernea (Zwieback) was one of only fi ve Jews admitted to the University of Ia┼či for the 1939 fall term, and he was one of the few Jews who not only escaped from the chestur─â courtyard when the shooting began but was not recaptured and returned to the ongoing massacre. On ÔÇťTh at SundayÔÇŁ he and his father were among those rounded up and driven to the ...
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Page Count: 224
Publication Year: 2013