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Hidden Genocides

Power, Knowledge, Memory

edited by Alexander Laban Hinton, Thomas LaPointe, and Douglas Irvin-Erickson

Publication Year: 2013

Why are some genocides prominently remembered while others are ignored, hidden, or denied? Consider the Turkish campaign denying the Armenian genocide, followed by the Armenian movement to recognize the violence. Similar movements are building to acknowledge other genocides that have long remained out of sight in the media, such as those against the Circassians, Greeks, Assyrians, the indigenous peoples in the Americas and Australia, and the violence that was the precursor to and the aftermath of the Holocaust.The contributors to this collection look at these cases and others from a variety of perspectives. These essays cover the extent to which our biases, our ways of knowing, our patterns of definition, our assumptions about truth, and our processes of remembering and forgetting as well as the characteristics of generational transmission, the structures of power and state ideology, and diaspora have played a role in hiding some events and not others. Noteworthy among the collection’s coverage is whether the trade in African slaves was a form of genocide and a discussion not only of Hutus brutalizing Tutsi victims in Rwanda, but of the execution of moderate Hutus as well.Hidden Genocides is a significant contribution in terms of both descriptive narratives and interpretations to the emerging subfield of critical genocide studies.Contributors: Daniel Feierstein, Donna-Lee Frieze, Krista Hegburg, Alexander Laban Hinton, Adam Jones, A. Dirk Moses, Chris M. Nunpa, Walter Richmond, Hannibal Travis, and Elisa von Joeden-Forgey

Published by: Rutgers University Press

Title Page, About the Series, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgements

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pp. ix-xii

This volume developed out of an academic conference, “Forgotten Genocides: Memory, Silence, and Denial,” held in 2011 in New Jersey, co-sponsored by the Center for Peace, Justice and Reconciliation at Bergen Community College and the Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict Resolution, and Human Rights at Rutgers University. We are grateful to the many participants and audience...

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Introduction. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory

Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Thomas La Pointe, Alexander Laban Hinton

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pp. 1-18

Is slavery genocide?
On one level, a critical genocide studies asks us to consider whether slavery in the United States is a case of hidden genocide. But this is just the tip of the iceberg. As we consider such questions, we must challenge our taken-for-granted assumptions and ask why given cases have been ignored, denied, or deliberately hidden. The Turkish campaign of denial of the Armenian genocide...

Part One: Genocide and Ways of Knowing

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1. Does the Holocaust Reveal or Conceal Other Genocides?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rightsand Grievable Suffering

A. Dirk Moses

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pp. 21-51

Whether public memory of the Holocaust reveals or conceals other genocides is a common—and controversial—question. Many take it as given that widespread shock about the Holocaust caused the “human rights revolution,” crowned by the U.N. Universal Declaration on Human Rights and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide in 1948. By increasing sensitivity...

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2. Hidden in Plain Sight: Atrocity Concealment in German Political Culture before the First World War

Elisa von Joeden-Forgey

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pp. 52-67

In our thinking about genocide, it is often assumed that genocides are hidden primarily through intentional acts of denial, that is, through propaganda and deception orchestrated by the perpetrating state or armed force. This chapter will examine a less intentional, much more long- term process of “atrocity concealment” involving the creation of official legal categories that encourage...

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3. Beyond the Binary Model: National Security Doctrine in Argentina as a Way of Rethinking Genocide as a Social Practice

Daniel Feierstein

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pp. 68-80

Genocide studies emerged from a fertile intersection of law, history, and social science. However, a shift in emphasis from understanding to prevention has gradually led to the current “binary model” that reduces genocidal social practices to an eternal struggle between good and evil in which the only problem is whether the “good guys” have enough “political will” to neutralize and...

Part Two: Power, Resistance, and Edges of the State

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4. “Simply Bred Out”: Genocide and the Ethical in the Stolen Generations

Donna-Lee Frieze

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pp. 83-95

After a series of legislative enquiries and reports, statements and apologies, the Australian Labour leader Paul Keating initiated the Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, titled Bringing Them Home (BTH), in 1995.1 The BTH report sought testimony from Aborigines who had been forcibly removed from their...

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5. Historical Amnesia: The “Hidden Genocide” and Destruction of the Indigenous Peoples of the United States

Chris Mato Nunpa

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pp. 96-108

Ho Mitakuyapi. Owasin cantewasteya nape ciyuzapi do! In the Dakota language, this is a greeting that means: “Hello, my relatives. With a good heart, I greet all of you with a handshake!” Damakota: “I am a Dakota.” Mini Sota Makoce heciyatanhan wahi: “I come from the land where the waters reflect the skies, or heavens” (the state of Minnesota).
I come from a people whose lands were stolen. Thus, my perspective will be...

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6. Circassia: A Small Nation Lost to the Great Game

Walter Richmond

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pp. 109-126

In recent years, genocide scholars and an aggressive international press have uncovered, publicized, and analyzed numerous mass murders that might have remained outside the public view in earlier times. Indeed, the well-known Serbian atrocities in Bosnia and Kosovo were only the latest in a series of ethnic cleansings of Muslims in the Balkans that began with Russia’s brutal annihilation...

Part Three: Forgetting, Remembering, and Hidden Genocides

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7. The Great Lakes Genocides: Hidden Histories, Hidden Precedents

Adam Jones

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pp. 129-148

This chapter explores a range of hidden and little-known genocides in the modern history of the African Great Lakes region and the implications of incorporating them into our comparative understanding of genocide, both in a regional context and beyond it. These implications are at once conceptual/theoretical, pedagogical/practical, and moral/ethical. They touch upon central, sometimes...

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8. Genocide and the Politics of Memory in Cambodia

Alexander Laban Hinton

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pp. 149-169

When Cambodians talk about Democratic Kampuchea (DK), the genocidal period of Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia when up to two million of Cambodia’s eight million inhabitants perished from April 1975 to January 1979, they recall many paths of ruin, the memories breaking light into this time of shadows, when memory itself became a crime.
Chlat, a low-ranking provincial government...

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9. Constructing the“Armenian Genocide”: How Scholars Unremembered the Assyrian and Greek Genocides in the Ottoman Empire

Hannibal Travis

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pp. 170-192

This chapter critically examines the scholarly and political discourse since the 1960s on the Armenian genocide. This discourse represents not simply a forgetting or continued unawareness that there were Assyrian and Greek victims of the anti-Christian massacres of the late Ottoman Empire and early Turkish republic, but sometimes an active suppression of existing historical knowledge...

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10. “The Law Is Such as It Is”: Reparations, “Historical Reality,” and the Legal Order in the Czech Republic

Krista Hegburg

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pp. 193-208

In this chapter, I examine how reparations, a phenomenon often theorized as a liberal tool for victims of historical injustice to attain a voice and call to account the state that perpetrated the violence against them, can function to sublimate the very voices they solicit. Using ethnographic research undertaken in 2004–2005 in the Czech Republic,1 I focus on the mechanisms through which such an...

Contributors

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pp. 209-212

Index

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pp. 213-218


E-ISBN-13: 9780813561646
E-ISBN-10: 0813561647
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813561622
Print-ISBN-10: 0813561620

Page Count: 248
Illustrations: 3 photographs, 4 maps, 1 figure
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Genocide, Political Violence, Human Righ
Series Editor Byline: Edited by Alexander Laban Hinton, Stephen Eric Bronner and Nela Navarro