The Story of Building a Great Cathedral in Newark
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: Rutgers University Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
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Preface and Acknowledgments
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This book began with a question, prompted by unexpectedly seeing a great stone church. It had picturesque towers, transepts, and a soaring copper spire. I saw itâwhat appeared to be a medieval cathedralâwhile traveling by train, not in France or Germany or England but in New Jersey, when I chanced to gaze toward the horizon as the train approached Newark...
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Newarkâs Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart is an exceptional example of American church building, and the long, important cathedral-building venture that it represents carries many distinctions. Its early leaders were the first American cathedral builders to search abroad for an architect and also the first Catholic cathedral patrons to conduct a formal architectural competition. After many challenges, when later generations...
Part I: Gothic Vision in Newark
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On a Sunday afternoon in the late fall of 1869, a young priest known for his flair for oratory stood before a small crowd gathered in Newark. In a big, passionate voice, he proclaimed: âNewark has done wonders in the past . . . and here today in this hallowed spot there is laid the foundation of the Cathedral not to be surpassed in beauty by any in...
Gothic and the Context of American Cathedral Building
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From the inception of the cathedral project, Bishop Bayley and other Church leaders in Newark imagined that the building would be in the Gothic style. Three of the four structures, for instance, referenced by Father McCarthy at the cornerstone ceremony of the Cathedral Chapel were Gothic. Though famously authoritative and centralized, the Catholic...
Gothic Passions: The Doane Family
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George Hobart Doane recalled his boyhood home in New Jersey as an American center for âthe dissemination of the views which took their origin in Oxford, and were first broached in the âTracts for the Times,ââ a reference to the Oxford Movement. This rightly credits his father, George Washington Doane, as one of the most influential forces in both the High...
Father Doane and Jeremiah OâRourke: Architectural Collaborators
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Jeremiah OâRourke, a refugee from the Irish Famine, in 1850 came to Newark, where his extended family settled. For the OâRourkes, immigration was a relatively brief reversal of fortune. Jeremiahâs father ran a successful tailor shop in Dublin, where Jeremiah was born in 1833. Just a few years before, Irish Catholics had won civil liberties following centuries of oppression, and enterprising men like the elder OâRourke entered...
Newarkâs Gothic Pilgrims Abroad
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Boarding the steamer Russia, Cunard Lineâs newest and first all-propeller- driven ship, in May 1870, Father Doane and Jeremiah OâRourke headed oÂ¤ on their mission. Doane wrote lengthy letters home for publication in the Advertiser that made Newarkers fellow-travelers on a journey that the priest was sure would lead to the creation of the finest...
âThe Newark Cathedralâ: Gothic Pilgrims at Home
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Exhilarated by all that they had seen and accomplished and by
their dreams for Newark, priest and architect came home, triumphant.
The Advertiser painted this brightly lit scene of Doaneâs return:
The serenade to Rev. Father Doane last evening in honor of his return home from his travels on the continent of Europe, was a complete ovation. A torchlight...
Bust: Crisis and a Grand Hope Deferred
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No place dropped further in the fiscal descent than Saint Johnâs Church in Orange, OâRourkeâs church that had opened only a couple of years before. What happened there is one of the most extraordinary episodes in American church building, and it brought the Diocese of Newark to its knees. Moreover, it forever altered the course of the cathedral...
Part II: Interludes
OâRourke in Washington
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Jeremiah OâRourke became supervising architect of the United States in 1893. He had a rocky time in the post, and several episodes during this public service (as well as other interactions with the supervising architectâs office) elucidated his professional motivations and personal character. OâRourkeâs interlude in Washington bears closer scrutiny than would ordinarily be called for here because of its value in interpreting a later turning...
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If a Dutch-style group portrait of Newarkâs eminences had been painted in the late nineteenth century, George Hobart Doane, in the ecclesiastical attire that he wore grandly, would have been in it. On an arc of advancement since his ordination, Doane succeeded Bernard McQuaid as pastor of Saint Patrickâs Cathedral parish. Doane built on a strong legacy...
Stilled Project, Ceaseless Change
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Three factors stilled the Newark cathedral project for more than two decades, from 1875 to 1897. Oscillating economic conditions made it difficult to make long-range plans. Leadership troubles plagued and distracted the bishop of Newark. And an onslaught of new immigrants sorely stretched the resources of the diocese. The zigzagging trajectory of...
Part III: Sacred Heart Cathedral
Newarkâs Rise and the Projectâs Revival
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At one point in the aftermath of ill-fated 1870s cathedral project, the Diocese of Newark considered selling the cathedral property. Monsignor Doane rallied with others to protect it. Guarded interest in resuscitating the plans occurred in the late 1880s. This was accompanied by doubt of another kind. Despite the picturesque effects that the site promised...
The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart
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Accounts of OâRourkeâs winning design were clear about the cathedralâs style. One called it âthirteenth-century Gothic Styleâ and another, more precisely, âcontinental Gothic of the thirteenth century.â The composition owed much to the High Gothic masterpieces of Chartres, Notre Dame, Rheims, and Amiens, but it equally called upon the Gothic...
Progress and Setbacks
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Simultaneous with the grand-scale landscaping work in Branch Brook Park, contractors began readying the cathedral site in early 1898. In late spring, a firm led by Peter Boyle, from a family of well-regarded builders in nearby Kearny, constructed the foundations, subsurface bearing walls, and the underground footings for the cathedralâs structural columns. An earlier press notice, almost certainly produced by OâRourke, told...
The Great Foundation Controversy
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In the winter of 1905â1906, workers made preparations to build the cathedralâs arcade. Waldronâs men constructed the bases for the columns and then started the difficult task of raising the heavy granite columns upon them. OâRourke suddenly asked Waldron to halt work, sending two letters in as many days about it. Here the record, though more...
New Architect and New Era
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Fear that the foundations might be compromised in places other than the piers that had been examined led Isaac Ditmars and the diocese to have all of them dismantled so that other possible deficiencies could be addressed. This radical measure permitted the remedy of deeper excavation in some places, further leveling of bedrock, and reconstruction of...
Boom and Bust Again
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Newark, like other American cities, roared during 1920s, fueled by a zeitgeist of prosperity that grew stronger as the decade unfolded. Commercial plants multiplied and boomed. Retail operations, from the big department stores to store-front shops, grew unabated. It was an era when Newarkers came to have a choice of more than sixty live theaters and...
Regional Developments and Twentieth-Century Cathedral Building
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Unfinished, Sacred Heart Cathedral sat in still watch over a city that was transformed once again. In the boom years of the 1920s, a small metropolis of tall structures rose in downtown Newark. When the Military Park Building opened in 1926 at twenty-one stories, it was the tallest building in New Jersey. New Jersey Bell Telephone put up a twenty-story...
Part IV: Completing Sacred Heart
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It was against this multifaceted architectural backdrop that Newark returned to its many-decades-long cathedral project. Within months following V-J Day in 1945, Newark Church officials beckoned architect Paul C. Reilly to the Newark chancery to discuss, in general terms, the future of its cathedral endeavor. Did they consider other architects? Certainly, the...
Interior Scheme: Artistry from Here and Abroad
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The compressed timetable for completing Sacred Heart meant that thematic decisions about decorative arts could be deliberate but not overworked. Early in their discussions, priests on the cathedral planning committee stipulated a single-level sanctuary platform and a âliturgical styleâ (freestanding) altar. Newarkâs Church leaders were open to progressive...
Complete at Last
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In summer 1952, building contractors and subcontractors, artists and artisans all labored furiously. But as this charge raced to the finish, the necrology of those who grasped for the grail of a completed cathedral in Newark lengthened by one name. With an abruptness with which he made many decisions, Archbishop Thomas Walsh died. Sacred Heartâs interiorâ crammed with scaffolding, pallets of stone, crated materials, and laden with...
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Finishing Sacred Heart brought a season of applause for Newark clergy, architect Paul Reilly, designer Gonippo Raggi, and the hundreds of workers who labored with them. The latter visited by the dozens to take photographs and give tours to family and friends. Thousands more came to Newark to see the sparkling-clean stone landmark, say a prayer in what...
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About the Editor
Page Count: 272
Illustrations: 30 photographs
Publication Year: 2012