Publication Year: 2011
Published by: Rutgers University Press
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When i ask my students “What makes an act a crime?” the most common answer, even among seniors majoring in criminology, is “Acts that violate cultural norms.” The answer raises more questions than it answers. I usually follow the question of what makes an act a crime with another: What is the difference between civil and criminal law? That question is...
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When we first began discussing editing a collection of classical and current research on crimes of the state for a book, we envisioned including some reprints and a couple of new pieces to serve as a one-stop reference for scholars and students of state crime. As such, we wanted to emphasize not only crimes by states but also responses and/or controls. However...
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We are thankful to the contributors for their willingness to be a part of this volume and for laying the foundation for our own scholarship on crimes of the state.Thank you to our colleagues for the support, guidance, and knowledge you so willingly share. We also want to thank William Chambliss and M. Cherif Bassiouni for their willingness to...
Introduction: Crimes of State and Other Forms of Collective Group Violence by Nonstate Actors
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Throughout history, abuses of power by tyrannical rulers and ruling-regime elites, which are carried out under their direction by state actors, have occasioned significant human, social, and economic harm to their respective national societies and those of others. Under the guise of war, large-scale human depredations...
Part One: Crimes of the State
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Scholarly attention to crimes committed by states or governments has steadily increased over the past few decades. Coming from many disciplinary perspectives—criminology, history, law, political science, socio-legal studies, and sociology—this field of scholarship has been united by two central concerns: identifying the etiological dimensions...
Chapter 1: Revisiting Crimes by the Capitalist State
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Crimes by the Capitalist State: An Introduction to State Criminality (CBCS) was the first book devoted entirely to the study of state crime, to call for the development of a criminology of the state, and to present several case studies of state crimes from North America, Latin America, Europe, and Down Under. Some...
Chapter 2: The Crime of the Last Century—And of This Century?
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The turn of a century inevitably gives rise to much retrospective interpretation and prospective speculation:What have been the central events and trends of the century now ending, and what are the most likely key events and trends of the century now beginning? An article entitled “The Crime of the Century: The Case for the Holocaust,” published...
Chapter 3: Nuclear Weapons, International Law, and the Normalization of State Crime
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In this chapter we argue that the use, threat to use, and continued possession of nuclear weapons by the United States constitute international state crimes and can be subjected to a sociological/ criminological analysis.We have previously addressed some of these issues in our book, Crimes of the American Nuclear State:At Home and Abroad, but ...
Chapter 4: Empire and Exceptionalism: The Bush Administration's Criminal War against Iraq
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On March 19, 2003, the United States and Great Britain, in conjunction with several inconsequential members of the “coalition of the willing,” launched an unprovoked invasion of Iraq and subsequently inaugurated a formal military occupation of that once sovereign nation. The Bush administration’s legal and political justifications...
Chapter 5: Do Empires Commit State Crime?
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If one reflects on the history of the world and focuses on those acts that have been defined by the Nuremberg Tribunal and the United Nations as the most severe crimes—genocide and wars of aggression— and combined these acts with the massive confiscation or stealing of property...
Chapter 6: Burundi: A History of Conflict and State Crime
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In east-central Africa, nestled between Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda is Burundi. From the onset of independence in 1961, Burundi has had a history of internal armed conflicts, ethnic tensions, and civil unrest in the form of crimes against humanity, massive and systematic rape, and other...
Chapter 7: Legal Precedent, Jurisprudence, and State Crime: Pinochet and Crimes against Humanity
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With the 1973 military coup of Chilean President Salvador Allende, General Augusto Pinochet began a seventeen-year dictatorship founded on fear, oppression, intimidation, and violence. According to the Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation, 3,200 people were killed or forcibly...
Part Two: Controlling State Crime
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Criminology is not just focused on explaining the etiological factors behind crime commission; ultimately the goal is to find and empirically assess policies to control it. A criminology of the state is no different. While explaining the causal mechanisms and common enactment procedures of state crime are important...
Chapter 8: Reinventing Controlling State Crime and Varieties of State Crime and Its Control: What I Would Have Done Differently
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In 1995 my edited book Controlling State Crime was published (Ross 1995a). Five years later, not only was my follow-up edited book, Varieties of State Crime and Its Control, released (hereafter Varieties), but so too was the second edition of Controlling State Crime (Ross 2000a, 2000b). In between the time...
Chapter 9: Complementary and Alternative Domestic Responses to State Crime
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Over the past two decades a growing body of literature on state crime has focused on documenting and explaining the etiological factors of the worst atrocities known to humanity. One can reasonably argue that the majority of this research on state crime has focused more on description and less on issues of controls of state...
Chapter 10: The Fairness of Gacaca
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In 1994, for one hundred days, Rwanda lost more than one million lives of innocent men, women, and children. In the aftermath of the genocide that killed mostly Tutsi and moderate Hutu, the country was laid in shambles: bodies were generally strewn everywhere in the country, some floating in rivers and a few buried in...
Chapter 11: Assassination of Regime Elites versus Collateral Civilian Damage?
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The U.S.-led aggression against Iraq in 2003 makes one wonder why it was that thousands of Iraqi civilians would have to die because the George W. Bush administration and their allies thought it prudent to bomb the country’s cities before they risked the lives of their own ground troops, beginning with the well remembered...
Chapter 12: How to Restore Justice in Serbia? A Closer Look at Peoples’ Opinions about Postwar Reconciliation
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Sixteen years after the beginning of the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the conflicts that ravaged the whole region, most intensely Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Kosovo, each of the countries is still struggling to find the best way(s) to address the atrocities that occurred in the past, realize...
Chapter 13: The Current Status and Role of the International Criminal Court
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The twentieth century saw a number of attempts to create a permanent court to adjudicate cases involving the worst sorts of crimes people commit—genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. From the Leipzig trials after World War I, through Nuremburg...
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Page Count: 368
Illustrations: 7 tables
Publication Year: 2011
Series Title: Critical Issues in Crime and Society