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Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11

Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Edited and with an introduction by Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia and Simon Reich

Publication Year: 2010

America's approach to terrorism has focused on traditional national security methods, under the assumption that terrorism's roots are foreign and the solution to greater security lies in conventional practices. Europe offers a different model, with its response to internal terrorism relying on police procedures.Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11 compares these two strategies and considers that both may have engendered greater radicalization--and a greater chance of home-grown terrorism. Essays address how transatlantic countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands have integrated ethnic minorities, especially Arabs and Muslims, since 9/11. Discussing the "securitization of integration," contributors argue that the neglect of civil integration has challenged the rights of these minorities and has made greater security more remote.

Published by: Rutgers University Press

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures

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pp. ix-

Tables

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pp. xi-

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-

This volume constitutes a companion to an earlier book we coedited and published in 2008, entitled Immigration, Integration and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective. Despite the title, that volume generated more questions than answers on the issue of the integration of ethnic minorities in a post 9/11environment. This book attempts to redress that oversight by focusing on the...

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1. Quandaries of Integration in America and Europe: An Introduction

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pp. 1-19

On June 24, 2008, Levar Haney Washington—a Los Angeles Islamic convert who planned to finance terrorist activities through armed robberies—was sentenced to twenty-two years in federal prison. He was convicted on terrorism conspiracy charges. At his sentencing hearing, he told a federal judge he belonged to a prison-based Islamic terrorist cell. ...

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2. Security and/or Participation: On the Need to Reconcile Differing Conceptions of Migrant Integration

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pp. 20-39

Managing diversity poses a multifaceted challenge on both sides of the Atlantic today. The process of integrating migrants has set off fierce arguments over identity, social order, and crime. While their specific foci and contours may differ, these debates have been joined in Europe and in the United States with increasing intensity. Implicated are public policies in a wide range of areas, encompassing...

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3. Security and the Integration of Immigrants in Europe and the United States

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pp. 40-58

Is the integration of migrant populations in receiving countries a national security issue? For scholars of international migration, the integration and assimilation of immigrants have long been central issues of concern, particularly in the discipline of sociology as well as in anthropology, law, and history.1 For these scholars, the social, economic, and political integration of immigrants represents...

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4. Security and Antiterror Policies in America and Europe

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pp. 59-78

Since the atrocities of September 11, 2001, the U.S. government and many private institutions have responded by closely watching immigrant communities from predominantly Muslim countries and “securitizing” virtually all relationships to those communities, especially immigration. This set of policies and practices, ...

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5. Integration, Security, and Faith Identity in Social Policy in Britain

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pp. 79-97

While demands for equal treatment—rooted in the humiliation of discrimination and of lives scarred by social, economic, and cultural marginalization—have motivated the political mobilization of marginalized groups in the public sphere, British social policy—focused on tackling racial and ethnic discrimination—has until recently ignored the impact of religious discrimination...

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6. The Clash of Perceptions: Comparisons of Views among Muslims in Paris, London, and Berlin with Those among the General Public

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pp. 98-113

Although Muslims have been living in some areas of western Europe in relatively large numbers since the second half of the twentieth century, their presence generated political debate only when it became associated with a possible threat after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Many alarmists considered Europe’s Muslim communities guilty by association, and anti-immigration parties wrote...

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7. How to Make Enemies: A Transatlantic Perspective on the Radicalization Process and Integration Issues

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pp. 114-136

There is a broad assumption on both sides of the Atlantic that the people who pose the highest threat to homeland security are immigrants and their children (irrespective of their legal status), and, more precisely, Muslim foreigners and Muslim nationals. The category of foreign-born inhabitants groups together legal and illegal foreign Muslims, perceived as alien to their host countries and thus...

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8. Security and Immigrant Integration Policy in France and the United States: Evaluating Convergence and Success

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pp. 137-164

Incorporation of immigrant populations has been the subject of widespread debate in recent years. Scholars have frequently compared various “models” of incorporation as if most countries have well thought out policies based on either national traditions or reasoned strategies for “making” foreigners into Frenchmen or Americans, for example. The two countries that are the subjects of this...

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9. Toward a European Policy of Integration? Divergence and Convergence of Immigrant Integration Policy in Britain and France

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pp. 165-177

The current decade has been a momentous one for debates on immigration, diversity, and national identity in European countries.1 In a context of renewed defiance against immigrants after 9/11, in particular Muslims, hostility toward outsiders was brought to new levels across the continent. Some notable examples of this include heated debates on Islam in the Netherlands, the creation of...

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10. Typologizing Discriminatory Practices: Law Enforcement and Minorities in France, Italy, and the United States

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pp. 178-191

Barack Obama’s election as president of the United States has generated a lively debate on the integration of minorities in Western countries. France is struggling with its “universalistic republican” model, which suppresses minority claims in the name of national unity. The bipartisan support for the veil ban illustrates the French reluctance to embrace diversity. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi’s...

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11. The Security Implications in the Demand for Health Care Workers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands

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pp. 192-211

On June 30, 2007, a dark green Cherokee jeep in flames drove at high speed into the glass entrance of Glasgow International Airport.1 Security guards prevented the two attackers from entering the terminal and immediately apprehended them. Five people were injured, but, fortunately, no one was seriously hurt. Eventually, eight people were arrested in connection with this terrorist attempt. The two...

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12. Asylees and Refugees: A Comparative Examination of Problems of Integration

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pp. 212-232

The effects of 9/11 were felt both in the United States and in Europe. Subsequent acts of terror in London and Spain added impetus to the need for security on both continents. This chapter examines the effects after 9/11 of the growing primacy of security concerns on policy toward refugees and asylum seekers, and their integration into the societies that give them refuge. It focuses on the connections...

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13. Culturalization of Citizenship in the Netherlands

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pp. 233-252

Western European countries are heatedly debating how much and what kind of cultural differentiation is to be allowed in the public domain. Many have witnessed the rise of right-wing populist parties that see migrants as a threat to social cohesion and national identity.1 The “culture” debate rages on a wide scale.2 Much of this debate has a nostalgic character, based on a...

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14. Comparitive Integration Contexts and Mexican Imigrant-Group Incorporation in the United States

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pp. 253-275

Since 9/11, national security issues have become decidedly more prominent on the public policy agendas of most postindustrial countries. With several of the hijackers involved in 9/11’s catastrophic events having entered the United States on nonimmigrant visas,1 the political and practical salience of entry policies of all types has risen dramatically in public consciousness.2 Longtime restrictionists...

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15. Conclusion: Lessons Learned and Their Policy Implications

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pp. 276-284

The studies presented in the preceding chapters are the product of several years of work, three major meetings, and a series of collaborative initiatives linking American to European experts. The contributors to this volume highlight various crucial aspects of the continuities in integration policies (legal, cultural, economic, political, and social), as well as the critical changes that have taken effect...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 285-287

Index

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pp. 289-201


E-ISBN-13: 9780813549422
E-ISBN-10: 0813549426
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813547169
Print-ISBN-10: 0813547164

Page Count: 318
Illustrations: 19 tables, 10 graphs
Publication Year: 2010

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Subject Headings

  • Social integration -- European Union countries.
  • European Union countries -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.
  • United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.
  • Arabs -- Cultural assimilation -- United States.
  • Muslims -- Cultural assimilation -- United States.
  • Arabs -- Cultural assimilation -- European Union countries.
  • Immigrants -- Cultural assimilation -- Cross-cultural studies.
  • Muslims -- Cultural assimilation -- European Union countries.
  • Social integration -- United States.
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