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Environmental Policy Analysis and Practice

Michael R. Greenberg

Publication Year: 2007

In Environmental Policy Analysis and Practice, Michael R. Greenberg cuts through the complicated layers of bureaucracy, science, and the public interest to show how all policy considerations can be broken down according to six specific factors: 1) the reaction of elected government officials, 2) the reactions of the public and special interests, 3) knowledge developed by scientists and engineers, 4) economics, 5) ethical imperatives, and 6) time pressure to make a decision. The book is organized into two parts, with the first part defining and illustrating each one of these criteria. Greenberg draws on examples such as nuclear power, pesticides, brownfield redevelopment, gasoline additives, and environmental cancer, but focuses on how these subjects can be analyzed rather than exclusively on the issues themselves. Part two goes on to describe a set of over twenty tools that are used widely in policy analysis, including risk assessment, environmental impact analysis, public opinion surveys, cost-benefit analysis, and others. These tools are described and then illustrated with examples from part one. Weaving together an impressive combination of practical advice and engaging first person accounts from government officials, administrators, and leaders in the fields of public health and medicine, this clearly written volume is poised to become a leading text in environmental policy.

Published by: Rutgers University Press

Contents

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p. -

List of Tables

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pp. ix-

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Preface

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pp. xi-

In 1966, I earned my first bumps and bruises trying to navigate the realities of environmental policy making. I was a graduate student at Columbia University during the worst drought on record in the northeastern United States. Across the region, the amount of available potable water was down by one-third, and in some locations there was less than half the normal supply....

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xv-xvi

Many family members, friends, colleagues, and students have directly and indirectly contributed to this book. I was born the South Bronx, about a 10-minute walk north of Yankee Stadium; we lived a rich environment. Children everywhere, innumerable professional and other athletic events, parades, and constant excitement...

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Introduction: A Quick Walk through a Framework of Six Environmental Policy Criteria

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pp. 1-12

I usually begin my senior-level course on protecting public health and the environment with the following statement: “Think of an environmental policy problem that you are really worried about, that distracts you (maybe keeps you up at night), that you talk about with your family and friends, and that probably brought you to this course.” After a minute, they tell me what these problems are, and I write them on the...

Part I: Six Policy Analysis Criteria: Themes, Theories, Tales, and Tasks

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Chapter 1: The Reaction of Elected Officials and Staff Criterion: The Brownfields Redevelopment Policy

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pp. 13-43

Brownfields are abandoned or underutilized factories, commercial structures, rail yards, gasoline stations, and other visible urban environmental scars left in the wake of over a century of industrialization and subsequent de-industrialization in the United States. Estimates of the number of brownfield sites in this country range from...

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Chapter 2: The Reaction of Nongovernment Stakeholder Groups Criterion: Environmental Cancer and Cancer Clusters

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pp. 44-69

Cancer is a group of diseases caused by abnormal cells that compress, invade, and destroy normal cells. Cancer cells grow and migrate. In the United States, more than 550,000 people die of cancer every year; in 1935, that number was 138,000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health...

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Chapter 3: Scientist Stakeholder Criterion: Gasoline Additives

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pp. 70-95

The first commercial automobile, a delivery wagon designed by Henry Ford, was shown to the public on January 12, 1900 (Brinkley, 2003). In 1950, the world had 53 million automobiles; 50 years later, it had 523 million, of which over 130 million were owned by U.S. residents — roughly one automobile for every two Americans...

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Chapter 4: Economic Criterion: Costs of Environmental Management

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pp. 96-128

During the 1970s — the halcyon days of the environmental movement in the United States — many activists, elected officials, and agency staff behaved as if the costs of environmental management were not important (see the discussion of the Clean Air Act in chapter 8). But cost was always there and was considered. The case study in this chapter focuses on the balancing of economic and other considerations by the people who manage the U.S. nuclear weapons legacy. These stewards face an unprecedented responsibility....

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Chapter 5: Ethics Criterion: International Trade in Pesticides and Genetically Modified Crops

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pp. 129-195

The first four chapters of this book examined environmental policy issues through the prism of elected officials, nongovernment stakeholders, environmental scientists, and economists. These interest groups are involved in every policy judgment, and it is not necessary to dig too deeply into an issue to find them. This chapter examines policy...

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Chapter 6: Time and Flexibility Criterion: Nuclear Power Revisited

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pp. 156-186

Nuclear power is shorthand for using a uranium-fuel-based technology to generate electrical power. More than 440 licensed nuclear power reactors located in 31 nations produce about 17 percent of the world’s electricity (World Nuclear Association, 2006). Some nations rely on nuclear power; others...

Part II: Policy Analysis Tools

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Chapter 7: Policy Measurement and Assessment Tools

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pp. 187-223

This chapter focuses on eight process and analytical tools that are used to measure and assess the environmental impact of policies, their economic impact, and human reactions to them. Each of these tools is normally taught in a separate university course, sometimes multiple courses, and refresher courses are typical. I make no pretense of providing a comprehensive discussion, nor do I expect a...

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Chapter 8: Decision-Making and Communication Tools

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pp. 224-250

Every environmental policy maker has his or her own decision-making style.Some want only a small amount of information from the six policy criteria; others require every bit of data and then come back for more. Some make irreversible decisions; others make tentative choices. Some announce policies personally;others try to avoid any publicity. This chapter summarizes the decision-making...

References

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pp. 251-278

Index

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pp. 279-297

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About the Author

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pp. 298-

Michael R. Greenberg is professor and director of the National Center for Neighborhood and Brownfields Redevelopment of Rutgers University and associate dean of the faculty of the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy. His books include Urbanization ...


E-ISBN-13: 9780813544731
E-ISBN-10: 0813544734
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813542751
Print-ISBN-10: 0813542758

Page Count: 320
Illustrations: 2 figures, 13 tables
Publication Year: 2007

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Policy sciences.
  • Environmental protection -- Political aspects -- United States.
  • Environmental protection -- United States -- Public opinion.
  • Environmental responsibility -- United States.
  • Environmental policy -- United States.
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