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Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition

A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington

Wolfgang P. Müller, Mary E. Sommar, Kenneth Pennington

Publication Year: 2012

In this volume dedicated to medieval canon law expert Kenneth Pennington, leading scholars from around the world discuss the contribution of medieval church law to the origins of the western legal tradition.

Published by: The Catholic University of America Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

On October 6, 2006, Kenneth Pennington celebrates his sixty-fifth birthday. The present volume, with contributions from his teachers, colleagues, friends, and former doctoral students, was compiled to honor him on this occasion and as a tribute to his outstanding scholarly and academic achievements. ...

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xvi

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Introduction: Medieval Church Law as a Field of Historical Inquiry

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pp. 1-14

The study of medieval ecclesiastical norms, known among experts as ‘medieval canon law’ (from the Greek word, kanōn, for ‘rule’), concerns the period roughly coinciding with the Western Middle Ages, between 500 and 1500 a.d. Its geographical focus includes all territories of the Latin Church, as opposed to the Eastern European areas of ‘Byzantine Canon Law’, ...

Part One. Western Church Law in an Age without Jurists, ca. 500–1140

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1. Kanonisches Recht und Busspraxis: Zu Kontext und Funktion des Paenitentiale Excarpsus Cummeani

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pp. 17-32

Die Entwicklung der kirchlichen Busspraxis im frühen und hohen Mittelalter bietet ein Beispiel für das differenzierte und wechselseitige Verhältnis von geschriebenem Recht und Rechtspraxis. Obwohl seit der Spätantike klare Normen schriftlich fixiert waren, die ein allgemeines kirchliches Verfahren unter Kontrolle der Bischöfe regelten, ...

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2. Zu Effektivität und Aktualität von Reginos Sendhandbuch

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pp. 33-49

Eine alte und immer noch ungeklärte Frage ist, ob die Sammlungen des kirchlichen Rechts überhaupt im praktischen Rechtsleben benutzt wurden. Am ehesten scheint dies noch beim Sendhandbuch Reginos von Prüm erwiesen werden zu können, denn dieses Werk wurde für die Praxis des Sendgerichts zusammengestellt. ...

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3. Zur Entstehung des Sendgerichts im 9. Jahrhundert

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pp. 50-56

Das Sendgericht ist charakteristischer Ausdruck der bischöflichen Diözesanhoheit in der mittelalterlichen Kirche.1 Seine Basis war weniger die seit ältester Zeit bestehende Disziplinargewalt über den Klerus als ein umfassend verstandener Seelsorgeauftrag gegenüber allen Gläubigen, die von sündhaftem Handeln abgehalten werden sollten, ...

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4. Ein Kanonist bei der Arbeit: Kleine Rechtstexte aus Codex Barcelona, Archivo de la Corona de Aragón Ripoll 77

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pp. 57-65

Was macht ein Rechtsgelehrter, wenn er praktisch arbeitet? Er liest, denkt und schreibt. Das war im Mittelalter nicht anders als es heute ist. Praxis kann nicht nur heissen: Anwendung, Exekution des Rechts, Umsetzung von Vorschriften in Verfahren und Urteil. Der Anwendung geht die Bildung von Rechtsauffassungen und das Studium des Überkommenen voraus. ...

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5. Vengeance and Law in Eleventh-Century Worms: Burchard and then Canon Law of Feuds

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pp. 66-76

At the beginning of the eleventh century, Burchard, bishop of Worms, composed the Decretum, a massive compilation of canonical materials in twenty books.1 From the outset, Burchard sought to identify basic concepts that were constants in the canonical tradition. He believed that the existing books of canon law were chaotic and inconsistent.2 ...

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6. Gedanken zum Institut der Chorbischöfe

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pp. 77-94

Als ‘episodenhafte Erscheinung der karolingischen Epoche...... mit angelsächsischem Ursprung’, so charakterisiert H. v. Schubert in seiner Geschichte der christlichen Kirche im Frühmittelalter die Chorbischöfe.1 Der Befund der Belanglosigkeit wird durch den Blick in ältere Lexika gestützt, die häufig das Lemma gar nicht kennen. ...

Part Two. The Formation of Canonistic Theory: Authors and Texts, ca. 1140–1350

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7. Neither Slave nor Free: Theology and Law in Gratian’s Thoughts on the Definition of Marriage and Unfree Persons

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pp. 97-109

In Causa 29, Gratian discusses the case of a bride who by mistake married the wrong man. To make things worse, the imposter was not a free man, but a slave. In a meandering discussion, Gratian treats the legal ramifications of this situation.1 C.29 is among the shortest in the first recension of the Decretum. ...

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8. Reos sanguinis [non] defendat ecclesia: Gratian, mit einem kurzen Blick erhascht?

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pp. 110-122

War der Anfang so leise, dass der ‘Anfänger’ nicht bemerkt wurde? War das Neue so aufregend, dass der, der darauf kam, übersehen wurde? Wie ist es passiert, dass uns von Gratian ‘nur’ der Name und das, was er geschaffen hat, überliefert ist, die Concordia discordantium canonum?1 Wir wissen es (noch) nicht. ...

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9. Twelfth-Century Scholarly Exchanges

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pp. 123-133

In recent years, the debate about the genesis of the most influential legal text of the twelfth century, Gratian’s Decretum, has grown more complicated and more fascinating.1 As I write this, it is generally agreed that the version of the Decretum that has been familiar since at least the beginning of the thirteenth century ...

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10. Notas sobre las introducciones In prima parte agitur y Hoc opus inscribitur

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pp. 134-153

Quienes dedicamos nuestros afanes a la investigación de las fuentes canónicas medievales, desde hace ya unos cuantos años, hemos de agradecer al Prof. Kenneth Pennington su impulso al formidable proyecto editorial sobre la History of Medieval Canon Law, que ya ha comenzado a dar sus primeros frutos.1 ...

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11. A Fragment of Compilatio prima at Columbia University

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pp. 154-158

The general outline of the developments in canon law between c. 1140 and 1234 is well known, even to non-specialists.1 In the century between the appearance of the textus receptus of Gratian’s Decretum, c. 1140, and the promulgation of the Decretales of Pope Gregory IX in 1234 the schools ...

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12. Die Phi.-Glossen der Collectio Cassellana

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pp. 159-169

Die Dekretalensammlung Collectio Cassellana wurde von dem grossen Kanonisten Justus Henning Böhmer (1674–1749) anlässlich seiner Edition des Corpus Iuris Canonici 1747 in einer Handschrift der Landesbibliothek Kassel (MS Jur. 15) entdeckt und als zweiter Appendix zu seiner umfangreichen Ausgabe vollständig ediert.1 ...

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13. ‘Mute Dogs, Unable to Bark’: Innocent III’s Call to Combat Heresy

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pp. 170-178

Pope Innocent III (1198–1216) issued the decretal Vergentis on 25 March 1199, at the beginning of his second year on the papal throne. He wrote it to the clergy, secular officials, and people of Viterbo, a city notorious at the time for harboring heretics. Viterbo was in the patrimony of St. Peter, making the pope the secular overlord of the city ...

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14. Johannes Faventinus on Marriage (With an Appendix Revisiting the Question of the Dating of Alexander III’s Marriage Decretals)

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pp. 179-198

The Summa decretorum of Johannes Faventinus has not received a very good press. It is largely, as the author himself admits, a ‘scissors-and-paste job’, a compilation of quotations and near quotations from the summae of Rufinus and Stephen of Tournai.1 ...

Part Three. Canonistic Doctrine in Practice: Courts and Procedures, ca. 1140–1500

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15. The Advocate’s Dilemma: What Can You Tell the Client? A Problem in Legal Ethics

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pp. 201-210

When Ken Pennington came to my office in 1965 to tell me that he wanted to do graduate work in medieval history, the possibility that nearly forty years later I would be writing a paper for a Festschrift in his honor was certainly the furthest thing from my mind. That I am delighted to be doing so goes without saying. ...

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16. L’usuraio, il testamento, e l’Aldilà: Tre quaestiones di Marsilio Mantighelli in tema di usura

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pp. 211-228

La canonistica bolognese degli ultimi tre decenni del secolo XIII rappresenta un promettente campo di indagine. Si tratta di personaggi ancora poco noti o del tutto oscuri, senz’altro minori rispetto ai giganti della generazione precedente come Sinibaldo dei Fieschi e l’Ostiense, o a più celebri contemporanei come Guglielmo Durante, ...

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17. Ein neues Kapitel in der Geschichte des kirchlichen Strafrechts: Die Systematisierungsbemühungen des Bernhard von Pavia (†1213)

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pp. 229-251

In dem Jahrhundert zwischen der Entstehung des Decretum Gratiani (um 1140) und der Publikation der großen Dekretalensammlung Papst Gregors IX., des Liber Extra (1234), wurden nicht nur die entscheidenden Weichenstellungen für eine Emanzipation des Kirchenrechts als Wissenschaft vorgenommen, ...

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18. Summarischer Syndikatsprozeß: Einflüsse des kanonischen Rechts auf die städtische und kirchliche Gerichtspraxis des Spätmittelalters

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pp. 252-274

Die Bedeutung des kanonischen Rechts und der Kanonisten für das politische Denken im Mittelalter kann kaum überschätzt werden. Kenneth Pennington hat in wertvollen Untersuchungen gezeigt, wie die Kanonisten seit dem 12. Jahrhundert einerseits dem Herrscher die Kompetenz zusprachen, neues Recht zu setzen ...

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19. Fonti per la storia della giustizia ecclesiastica medievale a Siena

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pp. 275-288

Da qualche anno attendevo l’occasione di proporre un chiarimento la cui esigenza mi è apparsa subito necessaria nel quadro delle mie ricerche di storia su Siena e il suo territorio.1 Da quando cioè Charles Donahue introdusse come ‘editor’ la parte relativa all’Italia nel suo fondamentale The Records of the Medieval Ecclesiastical Courts I: The Continent.2 ...

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20. Barbara Zymermanin’s Two Husbands

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pp. 289-298

In the Later Middle Ages, canon law not only regulated the lives and careers of ecclesiastical persons, clerics, monks, and nuns but also had an enormous impact on the daily affairs of the laity. Even marriage, the most intimate relationship between men and women, was not beyond scrutiny, since it was viewed as a holy sacrament of the Church. ...

Part Four. Canonists in Conversation with the Wider World

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21. L’origine et la diffusion de l’adage canonique Necessitas non habet legem (VIIIe–XIIIe s.)

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pp. 301-319

La maxime Necessitas non habet legem est fameuse. Plongeant ses origines dans le Jus commune, son usage se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui et elle figure encore dans différents dictionnaires d’adages juridiques utilisés tant dans les pays continentaux que dans ceux de common law.1 ...

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22. Innocent III, Huguccio de Ferrare et Hubert de Pirovano: Droit canonique, théologie et philosophie à Bologne dans les années 1180

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pp. 320-346

Il y a trente ans, le maître que nous honorons dans ce volume faisait paraître un article sur l’éducation juridique d’Innocent III. Il y montrait que rien dans les écrits du pape ne laisse transparaître une culture technique de canoniste ou de civiliste. La thèse proposée par Kenneth Pennington d’un Innocent, pur théologien, ...

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23. Considerazioni sulla pervasività della religione nella società e negli ambienti di studio universitari in età tardo-medievale

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pp. 347-356

In un suo classico libro su ‘La cultura della città’, pubblicato nel lontano 1938, l’urbanista e architetto americano Mumford scolpiva con poche parole uno dei tratti fisionomici della società europea del medioevo: ‘L’individuo isolato, durante il medioevo, si trova ad avere per destino o l’esilio o la morte’.1 ...

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24. Il diritto canonico, fonte della giurisprudenza occidentale nell’Ungheriae nella Polonia del medioevo

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pp. 357-364

Il sistema dello Ius commune cristallizzatosi nelle università e nella prassi dell’Italia medievale ebbe il suo influsso in tutto il continente europeo. Tale influsso però era diverso a seconda le varie regioni. Nella parte orientale dell’Europa centrale, in presenza di regni talmente gelosi della propria indipendenza dall’Impero Romano-Germanico come la Polonia e l’Ungheria, ...

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25. Hohfeld on Ockham: A Canonistic Text in the Opus nonaginta dierum

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pp. 365-374

Of course Wesley Hohfeld did not write about William of Ockham; but he could have done.1 Since Hohfeld originally published his fourfold classification of the meanings of the word ‘right’ in English law, his work has proved applicable in various other fields of study. ...

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26. Thomas More and the Canon Law

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pp. 375-388

How much did English common lawyers know of the Roman and canon laws? What use did they make of what they knew? These are questions of perennial interest to legal historians.1 This paper makes a small contribution to the subject, taking a famous lawyer as its focus. I hope it will interest the honoree of this volume. ...

Bibliography of Kenneth Pennington’s Published Works

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pp. 389-398

List of Contributors

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pp. 399-400

Index

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pp. 401-404

Production Notes

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p. 424-424


E-ISBN-13: 9780813219196
E-ISBN-10: 0813219191
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813218687
Print-ISBN-10: 0813214629

Page Count: 423
Publication Year: 2012