We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

The Philosophy of the Beats

edited by Sharin N. Elkholy

Publication Year: 2012

The phrase "beat generation" -- introduced by Jack Kerouac in 1948 -- characterized the underground, nonconformist youths who gathered in New York City at that time. Together, these writers, artists, and activists created an inimitably American cultural phenomenon that would have a global influence. In their constant search for meaning, the Beats struggled with anxiety, alienation, and their role as the pioneers of the cultural revolution of the 1960s.

The Philosophy of the Beats explores the enduring literary, cultural, and philosophical contributions of the Beats in a variety of contexts. Editor Sharin N. Elkholy has gathered leading scholars in Beat studies and philosophy to analyze the cultural, literary, and biographical aspects of the movement, including the drug experience in the works of Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, feminism and the Beat heroine in Diane Di Prima's writings, Gary Snyder's environmental ethics, and the issue of self in Bob Kaufman's poetry. The Philosophy of the Beats provides a thorough and compelling analysis of the philosophical underpinnings that defined the beat generation and their unique place in modern American culture.

Published by: The University Press of Kentucky

Series: The Philosophy of Popular Culture

Front cover

pdf iconDownload PDF (585.3 KB)

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF (92.9 KB)

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (71.2 KB)
pp. 1-6

The great historian of ideas Arthur O. Lovejoy once wrote: “The word ‘romantic’ has come to mean so many things that, by itself, it means nothing. It has ceased to perform the function of a verbal sign.”1 One could say the same about the word “Beat.” “Beat” encompasses such an array of meanings and contexts—cultural, social, literary, political, and philosophical...

I The Beats: Creating a Subculture

read more

The Philosophy and Non-Philosophy of Potato Salad

pdf iconDownload PDF (81.3 KB)
pp. 9-17

Howl. Howl for Carl Solomon, “who threw potato salad at CCNY lecturers on Dadaism.”1 Ginsberg said it well. Well, yes. The philosopher and his shadow. As Nietzsche knew, philosophy requires a double. The Beats, too. If Ginsberg, Kerouac, and Burroughs achieved literary renown for their raw expression of lived experience, it was by means of a kind of literary stuntdouble, a vicarious codependence that would make their...

read more

Laugh of the Revolutionary

pdf iconDownload PDF (100.8 KB)
pp. 19-32

The Beat literary movement can safely be described as masculinist. To wit, Jack Kerouac infamously describes female writers of his day as “girls” who “say nothing and wear black.”1 It is no wonder then that, similar to the ways in which they were often dismissed by the men in the movement, the female Beats have gone decades without getting their scholarly due. In particular...

read more

Beat U-topos or Taking Utopia on the Road

pdf iconDownload PDF (102.9 KB)
pp. 33-45

As Russell Jacoby details in Picture Imperfect, utopian thought has come under suspicion in the twentieth century. The political actualization of Marxism in the form of Soviet communism gave many twentieth-century thinkers pause, horrified and puzzled that a state apparently or allegedly inspired by Marx’s vision of a society without economic class or political coercion could so quickly show itself to be ruthlessly...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (100.9 KB)
pp. 47-61

What does it mean to be at home in a place? Is the home a psychic space we project upon the places we inhabit, or does it possess a specific geographical location that defines our identity as human beings? Moreover, can we ever really be at home? These are all questions that might be uniquely attributed to the poetry and prose of Gary Snyder as a participant in the Beat Generation. While...

II Beat Identities: Selfhood and Experimentation

read more

From Self-Alienation to Posthumanism

pdf iconDownload PDF (100.9 KB)
pp. 65-78

The connections between William S. Burroughs’s narrative and stylistic innovations and postmodern theory have been well established in Burroughs criticism. Many critics recognize that his disintegrations of conventional prose effectively reflect postmodernism’s concern with societal as well as artistic fragmentation. Less frequently considered, though, are the implications of Burroughs’s reconception of the subject for understanding the...

read more

"I am not an I"

pdf iconDownload PDF (108.3 KB)
pp. 76-95

When Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986) came to the United States in the late 1940s and published her essay “An Existentialist Looks at Americans” in the New York Times Magazine (Beauvoir 1947), she came to many of the same conclusions that Beat writers and their consociates did about American existence. Beauvoir tasted “a flavor of death” in America. While there is an “American dynamism” that asserts “itself against the inertia of the given...

read more

Tongues Untied

pdf iconDownload PDF (119.7 KB)
pp. 97-114

Beat, and Beat authorship, under the auspices of multiethnicity, multicultural philosophy? The notion might at first seem a template too far, special pleading. For as a postwar American literary heritage, the terms of reference have been largely of other kinds—a circuit of poetry, fiction, life-writing, performance, and visual creativity at once countercultural, given over to the...

read more

Joanne Kyger "Descartes and the Splendor Of"

pdf iconDownload PDF (112.9 KB)
pp. 115-130

In the late 1990s, two seminal anthologies, Brenda Knight’s Women of the Beat Generation and Richard Peabody’s A Different Beat, focused on women writers of the Beat Generation who had not previously been considered part of the male-dominated Beat canon. The West Coast poet Joanne Kyger was one of these. Coming to San Francisco from Santa Barbara in the spring of...

III Beat Avant-Garde: Spontaneity and Immediacy

read more

John Clellon Holmes and Existentialism

pdf iconDownload PDF (100.3 KB)
pp. 133-146

When Holmes wrote this statement he was remembering back to the Christmas of 1947, when he was a twenty-one-year-old unpublished, aspiring novelist living in Manhattan at Fifty-Sixth Street and Lexington Avenue, soon to meet another young aspiring novelist, Jack Kerouac. In the autumn of 1948, shortly after they had met and become friends, they were deep into a long...

read more

Wholly Communion

pdf iconDownload PDF (106.3 KB)
pp. 147-162

One rarely turns to the movies for insights into Beat poetics. Apart from avant-garde shorts by Bruce Conner, Ron Rice, Robert Frank, and Alfred Leslie, and a few others, not many films offer more than dim reflections of the Beat sensibility.1 Given this scarcity, it’s unfortunate that Peter Whitehead’s unique Wholly Communion has been almost entirely overlooked since its completion in 1965. Filmed at a massively attended poetry event...

read more

High Off the Page

pdf iconDownload PDF (105.4 KB)
pp. 163-178

Just what is the body’s knowledge? A scar traces the history of a laceration; a pain in the back indicates bad posture; a runny nose predicts a cold. The body is ours to read like a text, provided something occurs. Otherwise, it becomes all too often a mere given, an instrument used to grasp, to move, to live. Only through the prism of a rent do we witness the body itself in all its fullness and possibility. For those of us...

read more

Genius All the TIme

pdf iconDownload PDF (104.7 KB)
pp. 179-194

The Beat literary movement cannot be understood in the fullest sense without some examination of Buddhism, particularly in the forms that were available to these mystinauts: explorers of mind and beyond mind to the nature of awareness itself. The poet Anne Waldman, commenting on what constitutes “Beat,” perceives “an as-yet unacknowledged body of uniquely articulated and salutary ‘dharma poetics’—that derives from Buddhist psychology and philosophy” (Waldman 2009, 164–65)...

read more

Spontaneity, Immediacy, and Difference

pdf iconDownload PDF (109.6 KB)
pp. 195-210

At the outset of The Four Quartets (1936) quoted above, T. S. Eliot takes up the possibility that the problem of historical conditioning (the limits placed on human freedom/being by history) might be resolved by drawing a contrast between a processual, which is a historical mode of being limned as “time present and time past,” and a unitive present. This is thought of as “the still point of the turning world” without which “there would be no dance”...

IV Beat Politics: Ethics and Affinities

read more

Two Ways of Enduring the Flames

pdf iconDownload PDF (97.6 KB)
pp. 213-226

To attempt to place Kierkegaard’s and Bukowski’s work into the same context may on the face of it seem like an odd, maybe even forced maneuver, something along the lines of a deconstructive tactic. The dialectical complexities of a nineteenth-century dandy-martyr and Romantic, and the crystalline, modern prose of a run-down Los Angeles drunk. That seems like a tough fit. But if one takes time to reflect and look at it...

read more

Anarchism and the Beats

pdf iconDownload PDF (105.3 KB)
pp. 227-242

The first problem that we seem to be confronted with when we try to compare the philosophy of the beats to the philosophy of anarchists is that the beats were poets, not philosophers, and do not seem to have had a “philosophy.”
But things are not as they seem. Following Oswald Spengler’s idea of a second religiosity that arises out of the primitive elements (the “fellaheen”) of a declining civilization, the...

read more

Between Social Ecology and Deep Ecology

pdf iconDownload PDF (128.4 KB)
pp. 243-266

Gary Snyder is not a philosopher, nor does he “consider himself particularly a ‘Beat.’”1 Snyder is a poet, an essayist, an outdoorsman, and a practitioner of Buddhism. But despite his reluctance to identify with the Beat title, he has been an undeniable influence on the Beat generation and its writers. He was fictionalized as the character Japhy Ryder in Jack Kerouac’s The Dharma Bums,2 and helped initiate the San Francisco Renaissance by organizing...

read more

William Burroughs as Philosopher

pdf iconDownload PDF (96.1 KB)
pp. 267-279

The literary oeuvre of William Burroughs occupies an enigmatic position both in relation to the aesthetic movements of his time and the wider philosophical thematics of this period. In this essay, I want to focus especially on the latter problematic—the question of “Burroughs as philosopher.” Even on a superficial inspection, it is clear that Burroughs’s work is significantly concerned with philosophical issues such as...


pdf iconDownload PDF (77.6 KB)
pp. 281-286


pdf iconDownload PDF (54.0 KB)
pp. 287-291

Series page

pdf iconDownload PDF (35.5 KB)

E-ISBN-13: 9780813135823
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813135809

Page Count: 300
Publication Year: 2012

Series Title: The Philosophy of Popular Culture

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Beat generation.
  • American literature -- 20th century -- History and criticism.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access