We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Monumental Dreams

The Life and Sculpture of Ann Norton

Caroline Seebohm

Publication Year: 2014

In 1929, the Museum of Modern Art opened its doors, showing the astonishing paintings of Picasso, Matisse, and other avant garde artists. Young American artists quickly responded by experimenting with impressionism, cubism, and abstraction.

In Monumental Dreams, author Caroline Seebohm tells the riveting story of how Ann Norton (1905–1982)—a child of the South who had eschewed her Alabama roots to become a sculptor in New York City—joined this new guard. She studied with John Hovannes and Jose de Creeft and was studio assistant to Alexander Archipenko. Her work was well received, and by age 35, she had already participated in group shows at MOMA and the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Despite her burgeoning career, Norton found New York a difficult place to live. In search of paying work, she moved to Florida, where she became a teacher at the Norton Gallery and School of Art, founded by retired Acme Steel president Ralph Hubbard Norton. The two built a relationship based on love as well as common aesthetic values, and after his death, she built her finest and lasting work. Today, her monolithic sculptures—in the spirit of Stonehenge, Henry Moore, and Buddhist temple art—can be admired in the Ann Norton Sculpture Gardens in West Palm Beach, Florida.

Published by: University Press of Florida

Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF (121.9 KB)

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (81.1 KB)
pp. 1-4

About a twenty-five-minute drive from Selma, Alabama, at the spot where the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers meet, lies a ghost town. Once this place was the first state capital of Alabama, but nothing is left now except some traces of streets, ruined buildings, the odd foundation stone, a crumbling...

Part I. Southern Roots: Selma, Alabama, 1905–1930

read more

1. The Origins of a Great Alabama Family

pdf iconDownload PDF (105.5 KB)
pp. 7-12

Ann Vaughan Weaver was born in Selma, Dallas County, Alabama, on May 2, 1905. Her parents belonged to the three dominant families in Selma at the time—the Weavers, the Minters, and the Vaughans, all of whom who lived in the center of the South’s black belt, so-called for its rich, fertile, cotton-loving...

read more

2. Childhood in Selma

pdf iconDownload PDF (155.3 KB)
pp. 13-21

If Philip J. Weaver founded a dynasty, it was the female line that most distinguished it. His granddaughter Clara Minter Weaver was born in 1861, at the start of the Civil War, on the beloved Emerald Place plantation in Dallas County, which belonged to her mother’s family.
While most old Southern families struggled to keep their...

read more

3. Early Success

pdf iconDownload PDF (147.3 KB)
pp. 22-30

In 1923 Annie Vaughan Weaver started her undergraduate career at Smith College, in Northampton, Massachusetts. She did well there. She was secretary of the Junior Class, and in her senior year she was a member of the student council, the Physics Club, and the College Song Committee. In her senior year she was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa. In 1927, she...

Part II. The Art World in Turmoil: New York, 1930–1942

read more

4. A Tumultuous Education

pdf iconDownload PDF (122.5 KB)
pp. 33-39

With Aunt Rose cheering her on, Annie Vaughan Weaver slipped the chains of her southern childhood and headed for the city. On September 17, 1928, she applied for a place at the National Academy of Design in New York. She was admitted a week later.
The founders of the Academy in 1826, who included Samuel B. Morse, Asher B.Durand, and Thomas Cole, wished...

read more

5. The Emergence of an Artist

pdf iconDownload PDF (139.7 KB)
pp. 40-46

The timing of Ann Weaver’s apprenticeship as an artist in New York could hardly have been more challenging.
First of all, the early 1930s saw the start of the worst economic depression the country had ever experienced. Unemployment, bankruptcies, foreclosures, meltdowns, stock market collapses, suicides—from the cities to the countryside, nobody was...

read more

6. A Rare Friendship

pdf iconDownload PDF (180.1 KB)
pp. 47-58

“In 1938 I worked for several months in the stone carving shop of John Howard Benson at Newport, Rhode Island.” This simple sentence reflects a large chunk of Ann’s experience that deeply affected both her personal and artistic development. For it was here that a young woman, Adelaide de Bethune, lived and worked, and it was with Ade (as she was known) that...

read more

7. Career Challenges

pdf iconDownload PDF (116.7 KB)
pp. 59-69

During Ann’s New York years, she visited Selma regularly over the summer months. If Newport was becoming the center of her new intellectual life, Selma remained the emotional core of her identity. One of the issues their mother was struggling with back in Selma was the behavior of Ann’s younger sister Rose (born fifteen years after Ann), who was showing...

read more

8. A Turning Point

pdf iconDownload PDF (166.2 KB)
pp. 70-80

According to John Lapsley, when Ann left New York, she had fifty cents in her pocket, a battered suitcase that wouldn’t close until Lapsley supplied some rope, and little else. When she arrived in Florida, she was almost forty years old and had been working as a sculptor for most of her adult life. What, at this time, did she have to show...

Part III. From Annie Vaughan Weaver to Ann Norton: Florida, 1943–1953

read more

9. The Savior from Chicago

pdf iconDownload PDF (214.9 KB)
pp. 83-95

When Ann Weaver moved from New York to Florida, the Second World War was raging and America had finally entered the conflict. However, Palm Beach, then as now, was not exactly in the mainstream of contemporary international politics or culture, and Ann soon found that it was not the war that preoccupied people there but a social world that was...

read more

10. A Reticent Romance

pdf iconDownload PDF (135.2 KB)
pp. 96-102

When Ann arrived to teach at the Norton School in 1943, Ralph Norton had already added to the Gallery’s holdings, buying, among other lesser-known works, a Courbet, a Childe Hassam, a Gauguin, a Joshua Reynolds, and a sculpture by José de Creeft. He also built two new galleries (without air-conditioning) to house the expanding collection, including...

read more

11. Marriage and a New Life

pdf iconDownload PDF (149.4 KB)
pp. 103-113

Ralph Norton proposed to Ann on the afternoon of April 11, 1948. Almost immediately afterward, she rushed over to the Hunters’ house to tell them. “She was white as a sheet,” Robert Hunter remembered. “I told her, ‘Say yes quickly before he changes his mind!’”
Ann did not take his advice. The momentousness of Ralph’s proposal was too overwhelming for any such rush to judgment. She started running a fever. She...

read more

12. A Growing Confidence

pdf iconDownload PDF (115.1 KB)
pp. 114-124

As the winter of 1948 approached, the widows of Palm Beach dusted themselves off and began preparing for the busy round of parties that opened the season. “There probably will be great social doings there,” Ralph told Ann, “but fortunately I think we will be on the outside, looking in.” If they were—happily—outside the Palm Beach social set, within the...

Part IV. The Journey to the Source: Florida, 1954–1982

read more

13. New Freedom, New Work

pdf iconDownload PDF (122.4 KB)
pp. 127-132

On January 18, 1954, Robert Hunter returned to the Norton Gallery of Art to deliver a eulogy for the man with whom he had worked for so long and so happily. Mentioning Ralph Norton’s approachability, his eager quest for knowledge, and his aversion to publicity, Hunter said, “His very reasonable and down-to-earth philosophy was ‘Why should I miss...

read more

14. Figures in the Landscape

pdf iconDownload PDF (85.0 KB)
pp. 133-139

In late 1954, Ann and her mother made an extensive trip out west. It was the first of several trips they were to take together in the coming years, for after Ralph’s death, Ann’s mother spent much of every year with her daughter in Florida. This trip was to be transformative for the artist. Ann saw for the first time the spectacular rock formations and buttes, the...

read more

15. East and West, New Relationships

pdf iconDownload PDF (206.0 KB)
pp. 140-150

In 1964, Gene Leofanti and his wife, Anita, left Staten Island and moved full-time to West Palm Beach. Semi-retired, he was persuaded by Ann to come to her so that he could help her on all of her future projects. As an incentive, Ann gave him land at the northeast corner of the property for him to build a house for his family. The Leofantis’ good...

read more

16. Dreams of Selma

pdf iconDownload PDF (82.7 KB)
pp. 151-157

While her mother was alive, Ann made annual trips to Selma. There she would see her young nieces, Edith and Lane, the daughters of her beloved brother, William. The girls admired and enjoyed their aunt “Deat,” as she was called within the family. (No one knows the origin of the nickname.) Ann often brought with her a set of sculpting tools and pieces she...

read more

17. Time Runs Out

pdf iconDownload PDF (86.4 KB)
pp. 158-165

In early 1977, Ann Norton was diagnosed with leukemia, the disease that was to kill her.
She was just coming into her time of greatest success as an artist. Now, as she celebrated her seventy-second birthday, the commissions were coming in, the critics were recognizing her, and she was seriously making her mark in the art world. Her tenacity and vision were finally paying...

read more

18. The Garden as Legacy

pdf iconDownload PDF (165.8 KB)
pp. 166-174

Ann’s will was dated April 28, 1979. In it, she left $25,000 and Ralph’s piano to her sad nephew, William, and $50,000 to Gene Leofanti. Other small bequests were made to Gyani Maharani in Kathmandu ($1,000), her sister Rose ($5,000), her old friend Grace Jones ($2,000), her traveling companion Richard Beresford ($1,000), and her longtime black...

List of Exhibitions

pdf iconDownload PDF (44.3 KB)
pp. 175-176


pdf iconDownload PDF (127.6 KB)
pp. 177-190

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (76.3 KB)
pp. 191-194

First and foremost I wish to thank Ann Norton’s two nieces, Edith Weaver Haney and Lane Weaver Byrd, who shared their memories and archives with me with unstinting generosity and patience. Edith, the family archivist and historian, pored over Weaver family papers for years, teasing out the necessary facts about Ann’s background, following up leads, and...


pdf iconDownload PDF (362.6 KB)
pp. 195-201

read more

About the Author

pdf iconDownload PDF (35.4 KB)

English-born Caroline Seebohm has published books on art, architecture, and gardens including Boca Rococo: How Addison Mizner Invented Florida’s Gold Coast and Under Live Oaks: The Last Great Houses of the Old South. She has also published...

E-ISBN-13: 9780813048789
E-ISBN-10: 0813048788
Print-ISBN-13: 9780813049779

Page Count: 208
Publication Year: 2014