Andean Communities and Landscapes under Inka and Spanish Colonialism
Publication Year: 2013
This multidisciplinary--indeed, transdisciplinary--combination of archaeological, historical, and ethnographic research reveals how the Andean people of southern Peru's Colca Valley experienced and responded to successive waves of colonial rule by the Inka and Spanish empires from the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries.
While most research splits the prehispanic and post-conquest eras into separate domains of study, Steven Wernke's perspective explicitly combines archaeological and documentary sources to bridge the Spanish conquest of the Andes. He integrates GIS-based spatial analyses of documentary sources with archaeological survey and the only excavations of an early Spanish doctrinal settlement in the highland Andes to present a local perspective on how new communities and landscapes emerged as part of a continuous process of adapting to consecutive imperial occupations. Wernke's findings show how Spanish ideals of urban order penetrated this rural provincial setting as early as the first generation after the conquest, as well as the ways the integration of Spanish ideals depended on their resonance with prehispanic Andean precedents.
Through integration of empirical research and social theory, this volume contributes to current debates on colonial and postcolonial theory, historical anthropology, and the growing field of colonial archaeology. At ease whether examining religious practice at early Franciscan mission settlements or reconstructing prehispanic Andean land use, Wernke argues that we should avoid thinking of relations within the Inka and Spanish states as a dichotomy between colonizers and colonized; instead he traces how new kinds of communities and landscapes were co-produced at the local scale.
Published by: University Press of Florida
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Table of Contents
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List of Figures
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List of Tables
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Preface and Acknowledgments
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I arrived in Yanque for the first time in June 1996, an anthropological novice, bearing my backpack and letters of introduction. I first stopped by the convent behind the village’s impressive church to meet (the now late) Sister Antonia Kayser, a Bronx-born Maryknoll nun who had lived and worked in Yanque since the 1970s, ...
1: Colonialism in the Andes: An Emplaced Perspective
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In the short span of just a few generations, the peoples of the Andean region of South America engaged the colonial projects of two imperial powers— Tawantinsuyu (the Inka “Fourfold Domain”) and the Kingdom of Spain— each bent on extracting their wealth and reshaping their societies according to their own ideal self-images. ...
2: Situating Community and Landscape
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In the introduction, I advocated a perspective on colonial rule as an improvised order that emerges from the everyday engagements that colonial projects require, and I argued that community and landscape constitute two primary cultural interfaces through which these collusions are negotiated. ...
3: The Land and Peoples of the Colca Valley
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From space (Figure 3.1) the Colca Valley appears as a large and rich resource patch in a region otherwise dominated by expanses of high-elevation grassland steppe (puna). The valley forms the heart of the largest drainage system in southern Peru. After curving northwest from its source near Laguna Lagunillas (close to the city of Puno), ...
4: Negotiating Community and Landscape Under Autonomous and Inka Rule
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Drawing on a variety of archaeological and ethnohistorical data, this chapter explores the emergence of the autonomous ethnic polities of the Colca Valley during the Late Intermediate period and their subsequent incorporation into Tawantinsuyu. Major transformations in the scale and organization of local communities occurred ...
5: Convergences in the Places of Early Evangelization
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As we saw in the previous chapter, by 1532 the communities and landscape of the Colca Valley were undergoing significant transformations under Inka rule. Ethnic identities and boundaries had hardened, and political hierarchies more fluid under autonomous rule had been amplified and formalized to ...
6: Uneasy Compromises: Colonial Political-Ecological (Dis)Articulations
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By the 1570s, the Franciscan mission in the valley was more or less formalized within a system of convents and doctrinas, but the incipient congregation of settlement taking place in the doctrinas was soon to be eclipsed by the massive resettlement program initiated during the visita general of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo. ...
7: The Ayllu Interface
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By taking a trans-conquest perspective, the previous two chapters allowed us to see the common processes involved in how local communities engaged successive Inkaic and Spanish colonial projects aimed at refashioning Collagua society according to ideal images of order and hierarchy. ...
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By tracing the local historical trajectory from autonomous rule through the Inkaic and Spanish invasions, the goal of this book was to provide a grounded, emplaced perspective on the local experience of colonial rule. What comes to the fore in this perspective is the particular, irreducibly local manner in which new social orders were continuously improvised ...
Appendix: Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area
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Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2013