Does Regulation Kill Jobs?
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Are regulations job killers or job creators? This question has dominated much public debate in the United States during the past several years as the nation has suffered sustained high levels of unemployment. Some politicians espouse the view that regulations are job killers, while others...
1: The Jobs and Regulation Debate
Cary Coglianese and Christopher Carrigan
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The Great Recession wreaked havoc on employment in the United States. Even as the overall economy officially began to pick up by the middle of 2009, the American labor force still struggled to rebound. Month after month, millions of workers lost their jobs and millions more continued...
2: Analyzing the Employment Impacts of Regulation
Richard D. Morgenstern
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Prior to the current economic downturn, neither the creation nor the destruction of jobs was a major concern about the effects of regulation. In contrast, the term “ job- killing regulations” has now become a rallying cry for regulatory opponents, just as the exaggerated claims of job...
3: Do the Job Effects of Regulation Differ with the Competitive Environment?
Wayne B. Gray and Ronald J. Shadbegian
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Prior to 1970, environmental regulation was primarily the responsibility of state and local agencies— for the most part with limited enforcement activity. After the formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1970s and the passage of the Clean Air Act...
4: The Employment and Competitiveness Impacts of Power-Sector Regulations
Joseph E. Aldy and William A. Pizer
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In the debate over environmental regulations, a principal concern is the potential impact on employment in the more energy- intensive U.S. manufacturing industries. Although the academic literature and agency practice in regulatory impact analyses have estimated the direct effect...
5: Environmental Regulatory Rigidity and Employment in the Electric Power Sector
Rolf Färe, Shawna Grosskopf, Carl A. Pasurka, Jr., and Ronald J. Shadbegian
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In recent decades, there has been recurring interest in the extent to which implementing environmental regulations to reduce bad outputs (for example, sulfur dioxide, or SO2 emissions) adversely affects the ability of an economy to produce its marketed good outputs (see Pasurka 2008). This concern has emerged because with a fixed technology and...
6: Toward Best Practices: Assessing the Effects of Regulation on Employment
Lisa A. Robinson
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A poorly performing economy, accompanied by congressional proposals to curb regulation and new research on regulation’s effects on employment, has led to increased interest in incorporating employment impacts into regulatory analysis. Both the extent to which such impacts are...
7: Emitting More Light than Heat: Lessons from Risk Assessment Controversies for the "Job-Killing Regulations" Debate
Adam M. Finkel
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Although we can choose to think descriptively, quantitatively, or both when we evaluate the pros and cons of whether and how to attack a hazard to health, safety, or the environment, both political leaders and the public increasingly expect that numbers will play a central role. And not...
8: Happiness, Health, and Leisure: Valuing the Nonconsumption Impacts of Unemployment
Matthew D. Adler
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The income effects of unemployment have been much studied (Davis and von Wachter 2011). Reduced income, in turn, means reduced consumption: the value (at market prices) of the goods and services that an individual purchases and utilizes. However, it is clear that unemployment...
9: A Research Agenda for Improving the Treatment of Employment Impacts in Regulatory Impact Analysis
Ann E. Ferris and Al McGartland
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Benefit–cost analysis (BCA) is one of the dominant paradigms for evaluating regulatory decisions. In 2011, President Obama reaffirmed BCA’s role with Executive Order 13563 (Obama 2012). Not surprisingly, new political appointees and other senior policy officials are always anxious
10: Employment and Human Welfare: Why Does Benefit–Cost Analysis Seem Blind to Job Impacts?
Brian F. Mannix
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When economists perform a benefit– cost analysis (BCA) of a public project or policy, they think of it as summarizing the real effects of the decision on public welfare: the well- being of real people, measured according to people’s own preferences. The methods they use are specifically...
11: Unemployment and Regulatory Policy
Jonathan S. Masur and Eric A. Posner
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Unemployment is generally thought to be a problem that is best addressed with fiscal and monetary policy, not with regulations. But regulatory agencies have long tried to calculate and respond to the possible unemployment effects of regulations. Some statutes require agencies to...
12: Reforming the Regulatory Process to Consider Employment and Other Macroeconomic Factors
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The issue of unemployment is never far off of the national radar. During the Great Recession, it was at the forefront of policy debates, with both parties claiming unique solutions to lingering high unemployment rates. In the past few years, the role of regulation has also become...
13: Analysis to Inform Public Discourse on Jobs and Regulation
Michael A. Livermore and Jason A. Schwartz
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Despite the fact that job impact analysis poses steep challenges and is unlikely to substantially alter most regulatory choices, there are good reasons to integrate employment effects into cost– benefit analysis of federal rule makings. Cost– benefit analysis not only offers government...
14: Rationing Analysis of Job Losses and Gains: An Exercise in Domestic Comparative Law
E. Donald Elliott
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The issue of whether to quantify, monetize, and include the job losses (or gains) in the benefit– cost analysis conducted prior to adopting major rules is hardly unique in American law. Many analogous situations exist in which a policymaker must decide in advance of conducting...
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Producing this book has been a team effort. Not only did three editors collaborate in planning, writing, and editing, but we brought together 19 thoughtful scholars and practitioners to author chapters. We thank first and foremost these authors. Their willingness to participate in this...
Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 7 illus.
Publication Year: 2013