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Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts

Edited by Dan Miodownik and Oren Barak

Publication Year: 2013

Intrastate conflicts, such as civil wars and ethnic confrontations, are the predominant form of organized violence in the world today. But internal strife can destabilize entire regions, drawing in people living beyond state borders—particularly those who share ideology, ethnicity, or kinship with one of the groups involved. These nonstate actors may not take part in formal armies or political parties, but they can play a significant role in the conflict. For example, when foreign volunteers forge alliances with domestic groups, they tend to attract other foreign interventions and may incite the state to centralize its power. Diasporan populations, depending on their connection to their homeland, might engage politically with financial support or overt aggression, either exacerbating or mitigating the conflict.

Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts takes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the ways external individuals and groups become entangled with volatile states and how they influence the outcome of hostilities within a country's borders. Editors Dan Miodownik and Oren Barak bring together top scholars to examine case studies in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Turkey and explore the manifold roles of external nonstate actors. By shedding light on these overlooked participants whose causes and consequences can turn the tide of war, Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts provides a critical new perspective on the development and neutralization of civil war and ethnic violence.

Contributors: Oren Barak, Chanan Cohen, Robert A. Fitchette, Orit Gazit, Gallia Lindenstrauss, Nava Löwenheim, David Malet, Dan Miodownik, Maayan Mor, Avraham Sela, Gabriel (Gabi) Sheffer, Omer Yair.

Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press

Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title Page

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p. 4-4

Copyright Page

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p. 5-5

Table of Contents

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pp. 6-9

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Introduction

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pp. 1-11

...Intrastate armed conflicts, whether of low or high intensity, are the most pronounced form of organized violence in the world today. Thousands of people are killed, wounded, or displaced every year in intrastate conflicts that range across the globe, from Sudan, Lebanon, Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic...

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1. The ‘Modern Sherwood Forest’: Theoretical and Practical Challenges

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pp. 12-33

...Bassam Ahmad Kanj, a Sunni Muslim, was born in 1964 in a small village in the al- Dinniyeh region of North Lebanon. In 1985 he left for the United States and studied in Boston. There, he was influenced by the conferences on Jihad in Afghanistan, organized by sympathizers of the Islamic cause in that country...

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2. Framing to Win: The Transnational Recruitment of Foreign Insurgents

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pp. 34-55

...How do insurgencies recruit foreign fighters to join intrastate conflicts? Empirical data from a diverse array of civil conflicts in which foreigners joined the rebels indicate that the main contending explanations for local mobilization in civil wars— greed and grievance— appear to hold little purchase for...

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3. State, Society, and Transnational Networks: The Arab Volunteers in the Afghan War (1984–1990)

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pp. 56-83

...In December 1979, Soviet forces entered Afghanistan at the request of the embattled ruling communist regime, which faced a mounting indigenous insurgency. Over the ensuing decade, thousands of Arabs volunteered for holy war (jihad) against the Soviets, in solidarity with the Afghan Muslim resistance...

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4. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Roles of Diasporas in Intrastate Conflicts

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pp. 84-105

...Recent worldwide social, economic, and political developments have had a significant impact on diasporas, in particular on their relations with host- lands, homelands, and other states in which their kin permanently reside. Consequently, many diasporic communities have...

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5. Turkey’s Dual Problem: Between Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora

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pp. 106-124

...For over ninety years a debate has been waging over how to define the tragedy of the Ottoman Armenians during World War I, referred to here as the Armenian genocide. The Armenian genocide was the culmination of an intrastate conflict between Armenians and Turks that began in the nineteenth century...

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6. Turkey, the Kurds, and Turkey’s Incursions into Iraq: The Effects of Securitization and Desecuritization Processes

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pp. 125-139

...During the last three decades, Turkey has repeatedly sent its forces across the border into Iraq, largely as a result of the trans-state nature of the Kurdish problem and the weakening control of the Iraqi central government over developments in Northern Iraq. The most recent of these incursions took place...

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7. From a Militia to a Diasporic Community: The Changing Identity of the South Lebanese Army

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pp. 140-165

...The Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in May 2000 had far- reaching effects on Israel and Lebanon, as well as on Middle Eastern regional dynamics. One of its lesser- known consequences was the creation of a new Lebanese diasporic community in Israel. This diaspora included the former members of the...

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8. Domestic-Regional Interactions and Outside Intervention in Intrastate Conflicts: Insights from Lebanon

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pp. 166-186

...The two decades since the end of the Cold War have witnessed numerous intrastate conflicts (especially in the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East) and various forms of outside intervention (particularly military intervention and mediation) designed to ameliorate them. Yet most of these conflicts (e.g., in Somalia, Iraq, and Sudan) turned out to be difficult if not impossible for...

Notes

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pp. 187-202

Bibliography

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pp. 203-232

List of Contributors

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pp. 233-236

Index

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pp. 237-242

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 243-248

...The editors wish to thank the Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem for its generous support to this project. In particular, we are grateful to the Institute’s director, Alfred Tovias, and to the members of its administrative staff, Anat Illouz and Hani Mazar...


E-ISBN-13: 9780812208672
E-ISBN-10: 0812208676
Print-ISBN-13: 9780812245431
Print-ISBN-10: 0812245431

Page Count: 264
Illustrations: 1 illus.
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: National and Ethnic Conflict in the 21st Century
Series Editor Byline: Brendan O'Leary, Series Editor

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Subject Headings

  • Insurgency.
  • Civil war.
  • Non-state actors (International relations).
  • Ethnic conflict.
  • Middle East -- History, Military -- 20th century.
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