Policy, Planning, and People
Promoting Justice in Urban Development
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
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Table of Contents
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Introduction: Policy, Planning, and People
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This collection of invited essays, especially written for this book, provides the readers with the state of the art of urban studies and planning oriented to the theme of planning for people. They all cope with the challenge of enhancing quality of life for all in the built environment. ...
I. Planning in an Era of Turbulence
Chapter 1. The Profession of Urban Planning and its Societal Mandate
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Modern urban planning is over a hundred years old, yet there is still no internal agreement about its mission and little external recognition of its societal role. This opening essay is intended to promote agreement among planners regarding their societal responsibility, a step that in turn may enhance external recognition of the planning profession and its societal mandate. ...
Chapter 2. Restoring Just Outcomes to Planning Concerns
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Creating a more just world has been a human goal ever since injustice was recognized and defined. Needless to say, the definitions of just outcomes and the methods for attaining them have differed widely across cultures and epochs. Some visions of justice have been entirely ethereal or otherworldly. Many, however, have been presented in the context of a physical utopia ...
Chapter 3. Environmental Equity: Is it a Viable City Planning Goal?
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The improvement of environmental conditions, primarily of the urban poor, has been one of the main driving forces and goals of planning in the past century. Indeed, the environmental degradation induced by the industrial revolution and borne mainly by the urban poor, a condition graphically described by various nineteenth-century writers and analysts, was one of the stimulants ...
Chapter 4. From Socialism to Capitalism: The Social Outcomes of the Restructuring of Cities
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The past twenty years or so brought the largest and quickest changes in the history of the Eastern-Central European cities. Within this short time, three periods can be distinguished, each with a different economic basis: the so-cialist system; the transitory, unregulated free market system; and the recent This chapter explores the changes in the urban development processes of ...
Chapter 5. The Past, Present, and Future of Professional Ethics in Planning
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Planning has historically been about shaping our shared built environment, but over time it has also come to be about forming our collective institutional and social environments. The meaning of plans is in their impacts on communities and in the actions that affect relationships among people within social and physical environments. Every collective or social decision is based ...
II. Equity-Oriented Planning
Chapter 6. Toward an Equity-Oriented Planning Practice in the United States
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Over the past sixty years almost all older industrial cities in the United States have been losing population, jobs, and economic investment. As a consequence, most are becoming locations of concentrated poverty and unemployment. Global economic changes have eliminated employment and income opportunities for many lower- and moderate-income people, with minority ...
Chapter 7. Urban Transportation and Social Equity: Transportation-Planning Paradigms that Impede Policy Reform
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To the casual observer, transportation may seem to be an egalitarian aspect of metropolitan life. The vehicles of the wealthy travel in traffic jams at the same speed as those of the poor. An overcrowded rapid transit system leaves all passengers uncomfortable regardless of social class. But access to the means of transportation and to the destinations they connect is distributed highly ...
Chapter 8. Social Equity in the Network Society: Implications for Communities
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Digital networks are increasingly replacing or complementing social net-works of face-to-face communication, furthering the formation of globally interdependent relationships within the economy, state, and society. The “network society” typified by Castells (1996) and van Dijk (1996) created by these new relationships is the result of a shift in spatial and temporal patterns ...
Chapter 9. The Center-Periphery Dilemma: Spatial Inequality and Regional Development
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Variations exist among regions. These variations manifest themselves in the levels of the population’s economic and social well-being. Different regions are endowed with production factors and characteristics that offer differ-ent opportunities for specialization, which can be exploited to gain regional comparative advantage. They then may add to the region’s aggregate income ...
III. Planning and Excluded Groups
Chapter 10. Planning and Poverty: an Uneasy Relationship
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Do planners hate the poor? The evidence of history suggests that at best they have been indifferent, especially if offered the opportunity to plan on a massive scale. From the clearance of Roman insulae for imperial palaces in the first century C.E., to Haussmann’s boulevards in the 1850s, to urban renewal in U.S. cities in the 1960s and the current destruction of old Beijing, the ...
Chapter 11. The City as a Local Welfare System
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Since the 1960s, economic, demographic, social, and political change has been reshaping individual and institutional life throughout the industrialized world. These changes have brought back to the fore the crucial role played by local context in both economic development and social welfare programs. This new importance of the local has only been strengthened by a tendency ...
Chapter 12. Policies toward Migrant Workers
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Transnational worker migration is a complex and variable phenomenon. As such, it should command the full attention of the various disciplines that influence planning strategies for migrant workers. Any attempt to evaluate plans for migrant worker absorption must take a multidisciplinary perspective in order to capture the wider structural context in which planning ...
Chapter 13. Planning for Aging Involves Planning for Life
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We are in the midst of profound demographic changes taking place on a global scale. Society is aging, the result of declining fertility rates and increasing longevity. The number of older people and their increasing share of the population have significant implications for the extent to which society can provide necessary levels of support to ensure their quality of life. ...
IV. Housing and Community
Chapter 14. Public Housing in the United States: Neighborhood Renewal and the Poor
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The tortuous and tortured saga of public housing in the United States is a kind of double social experiment: first when it was built—under the high modernist hopes of the mid-twentieth century—and again, as the century closed, when it was redeveloped as a nostalgia-riddled effort that mimicked a pre-modernist urbanism. In both phases, planners and designers promised ...
Chapter 15. Neighborhood Social Mix: Theory, Evidence, and Implications for Policy and Planning
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Progressive thinkers about the residential composition of neighborhoods have long held that population socioeconomic diversity was desirable (Gans 1961; Sarkissian 1976). Similar sentiments still undergird a rich palette of official pronouncements and planning initiatives in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Programmatic examples include: urban regeneration measures ...
Chapter 16. Suspicion, Surveillance, and Safety: A New Imperative for Public Space?
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Openness, access, trust, freedom of speech, and diversity have always been the essential tenets of Western liberal democracies, in contrast to the non-democratic societies where such features are conspicuously absent. For the purposes of this chapter this assumption does not require empirical validation from polling data affirming that a certain percentage of the general ...
Chapter 17. Beyond the Ladder: New Ideas about Resident Roles in Contemporary Community Development in the United States
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During the second half of the twentieth century, the role of residents in community development programs across the United States gained considerable attention as civil rights leaders and community activists pushed municipal governments and their federal partners to develop more participatory planning processes. This greater resident voice in community development ...
List of Contributors
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The chapters in this book are the work of individual authors, but the book as a whole is the product of extensive collaboration. The project was conceived at the Center for Urban and Regional Planning at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, where issues of Planning with/for People have been high on the agenda for the last three decades. A series of meetings with ...
Page Count: 448
Illustrations: 19 illus.
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: The City in the Twenty-First Century
Series Editor Byline: Eugenie L. Birch and Susan M. Wachter, Series Editors