Crusade and Christendom
Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291
Publication Year: 2013
In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued his letter Vineam Domini, thundering against the enemies of Christendom—the "beasts of many kinds that are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth"—and announcing a General Council of the Latin Church as redress. The Fourth Lateran Council, which convened in 1215, was unprecedented in its scope and impact, and it called for the Fifth Crusade as what its participants hoped would be the final defense of Christendom. For the first time, a collection of extensively annotated and translated documents illustrates the transformation of the crusade movement.
Crusade and Christendom explores the way in which the crusade was used to define and extend the intellectual, religious, and political boundaries of Latin Christendom. It also illustrates how the very concept of the crusade was shaped by the urge to define and reform communities of practice and belief within Latin Christendom and by Latin Christendom's relationship with other communities, including dissenting political powers and heretical groups, the Moors in Spain, the Mongols, and eastern Christians. The relationship of the crusade to reform and missionary movements is also explored, as is its impact on individual lives and devotion. The selection of documents and bibliography incorporates and brings to life recent developments in crusade scholarship concerning military logistics and travel in the medieval period, popular and elite participation, the role of women, liturgy and preaching, and the impact of the crusade on western society and its relationship with other cultures and religions.
Intended for the undergraduate yet also invaluable for teachers and scholars, this book illustrates how the crusades became crucial for defining and promoting the very concept and boundaries of Latin Christendom. It provides translations of and commentaries on key original sources and an up-to-date bibliography.
Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, Dedication
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In 1971 Edward Peters published Christian Society and the Crusades, 1198–1229,a modest volume of historical documents in English translation intended to makeavailable to students a number of widely scattered source materials and a briefsurvey of scholarship to date, dealing with the crusade movements of a particularlyimportant period in both crusade and wider European history. The volume drew...
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Map 2. Areas of the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition in Southern France...
Note on Abbreviations and Translation
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Introduction: Crusade and Christendom, 1187–1291
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Beasts of many kinds are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lordof Sabaoth, and their onset has so far succeeded against it that over nosmall area thorns have sprung up instead of vines and (with grief wereport it!) the vines themselves are variously infected and diseased, andinstead of the grape they bring forth the wild grape [Is 6:4]. Therefore...
Part I: The Pope, Crusades, and Communities, 1198–1213
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As Christoph Maier has observed, the thirteenth was ‘‘arguably the century withthe most intense and varied crusading activity of the entire Middle Ages.’’1 Ofcourse the circumstances of earlier crusade activity in northern Europe and Iberiaand the changing fortunes of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the twelfth cen-tury, as well as the powerful Cistercian devotional commitment to the idea of...
Part II: Crusade and Council, 1213–1215
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The Fourth Lateran Council, first announced in the letter Vineam Domini of1213, took place in the Lateran basilica and palace complex in Rome from Novem-ber 11 to November 30, 1215. Not only did it represent the culmination of thework of the legislative councils of the twelfth century, but it incorporated theintellectual and scientific developments in the fields of theology and canon law...
Part III: The Fifth Crusade, 1213–1221
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The Fifth Crusade was the campaign envisioned in Vineam Domini in 1213,announced to the faithful and to crusade preachers in Quia maior and Pium etsanctum, also in 1213, and formally announced in Ad liberandam in 1215. A pope,not individual nobles and their willful and underfunded followers, as in the FourthCrusade, nor an emperor, as in the crusade of 1197–1198, was to direct the vast...
Part IV: The Emperor's Crusade, 1227–1229
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Behind all the planning and mobilization of the Fifth Crusade was the figure ofthe emperor Frederick II (1194–1250). After the sudden death of Henry VI in1197, Frederick’s mother, Constance, regarded by the nobles of Sicily as the heir-ess of Roger II, proved willing to submit the kingdom of Sicily to the pope inorder to secure Frederick’s succession. She also persuaded Innocent III, who was...
Part V: The Barons' Crusade, 1234–1245
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Honorius III was succeeded in 1227 by Cardinal Hugolino, who took the papalname Gregory IX (1227–1241). Gregory had been protector of the Franciscanorder, papal legate in Lombardy for the Fifth Crusade, and was a relative of Inno-cent III. His complex relations with Frederick II have already been noted, particu-larly his concerns with Frederick’s power over ecclesiastical affairs in Sicily, his fears...
Part VI: The Mongol Crusades, 1241–1262
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The Mongol Empire and its expansion into China, eastern Europe, and the easternIslamicate in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries turned the geopolitical world ofEurasia upside down. Assembled by a talented chieftain named Temujin (d. 1227),who overcame and absorbed neighboring peoples until in 1206 he was acclaimedChinggis Khan, the empire expanded enormously under his sons and successors....
Part VII: The Saint's Crusades, 1248–1270
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Like Frederick II and other thirteenth-century crusaders, Louis IX of France camefrom a distinguished crusading dynasty. His great-grandfather Louis VII had beenone of the leaders of the Second Crusade, his grandfather Philip II Augustus oneof the leaders of the Third Crusade, and his father Louis VIII had died on theAlbigensian Crusade. This family legacy and the ominous events of the 1230s and...
Part VIII: The Italian Crusades, 1241–1268
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Crusades launched by popes against European Christian opponents have oftenbeen called (and criticized as) ‘‘political crusades,’’ as if they were devoid of reli-gious significance and could only be understood as conflicts between worldlypopes and their purely political enemies. To be sure, the exclusive papal authorityto call a crusade for any purpose or destination was universally recognized (if not...
Part IX: Living and Dying on Crusade
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Crusades did not consist solely of preaching, recruiting, and fighting in distantlands. They also involved planning, local arrangements, and travel across greatdistances. Those distances were originally crossed overland, but as early as 1125the idea of maritime expeditions with Egypt as the primary target became morecommon, and by the end of the twelfth century the Atlantic and Mediterranean...
Part X: The Road to Acre, 1265–1291
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Between 1198 and 1291 both Christendom and crusade underwent a number ofsubstantial changes. Considering crusade, we can see that earlier military expedi-tions between 1096 and 1204 tended to be responses by various popes to particu-lar crises in the Holy Land and their armies to be composed of aristocratic warriors(either kings or great lords) and their followers drawn broadly from across Chris-...
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We are grateful to the scholars and institutions who have contributed to thisbook in various ways, all helpful: Alfred J. Andrea, Nicole Be´riou, Brenda Bolton,Leonard E. Boyle, OP[†], Kathleen Brahney, Daron Burrows, Gary Dickson, JeanFlori, Benjamin Z. Kedar, Robert Lerner, Jean Longe`re, Michael Lower, ThomasMadden, John C. Moore, Carolyn Muessig, James Muldoon, Ken Pennington,...
Page Count: 568
Illustrations: 5 illus.
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: The Middle Ages Series
Series Editor Byline: Ruth Mazo Karras, Series Editor Edward Peters, Founding Editor