Lee's Army during the Overland Campaign
A Numerical Study
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: LSU Press
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The Overland Campaign of 1864 ranks as one of the most crucialâand least studiedâcampaigns of the American Civil War. In the summer of 1863, the Union Army of the Potomac repulsed Gen. Robert E. Leeâs foray into Penn-sylvania and drove his Army of Northern Virginia back to the Old Dominion. But Union commanders frittered away their Gettysburg victory, permitting ...
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People have asked about the original interest and impetus for doing this study. The seeds were apparently planted during my childhood. My late mother, Mary Wendell Young, always had an avid interest in history, and perhaps I inherited this avocation from her. I recall finding and reading books on Robert E. Lee and other Civil War generals in the local elementary- ...
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On May 4, 1864, the Federal Army of the Potomac began crossing the Rapidan River in north-central Virginia and moving toward its rival, the Confed-erate Army of Northern Virginia. This was the inevitable meeting of the two leading commanders of the Civil War, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Gen. Robert E. Lee. The 1864â65 battles in Virginia between the armies of ...
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The typical historical account of the campaigns of 1864 and 1865 in Virginia has the forces of Leeâs Army of Northern Virginia getting the most out of limited, if not meager, manpower, armaments, commissary supplies, and other resources before finally being overcome by Grantâs numerically supe-rior and significantly better equipped and supplied Army of the Potomac. ...
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The Army of Northern Virginia was considerably reinforced with many new units during the Overland Campaign. Many of these were drawn from Gen-eral Beauregardâs forces facing Butlerâs Army of the James. Some originally belonged to Leeâs army, others were drawn from the military departments and commands along the Atlantic Seaboard. Breckinridgeâs Division was tempo-...
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Any historian or researcher seriously studying the Civil War will quickly discover that there are few if any reliable records regarding casualties for all of the Confederate armies in the latter part of the war (after 1863). This situ-ation equally applies to the Army of Northern Virginia during the Overland Campaign. The Official Records contain reports with casualties for only five ...
The figures for the battle casualties in Tables 7â15 were compiled from indi-vidual brigade and battalion totals. These unit totals are presented in a similar form in fifty-nine individual tables in Appendix A using the same format as described above, except for one change. A second, lesser figure is provided in parentheses for the âCampaign Totalâ loss of the brigade as well as for many ...
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Kershawâs Division was composed of the brigades of Humphreys, Henagan, Wofford, and Bryan. This organization played a prominent role in most of the earlier campaigns and major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia and, at this stage of the war, was one of its best divisions. The division, in particular, performed competently at the Battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellors ville, and ...
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The core of Johnsonâs Division was originally Thomas J. âStonewallâ Jack-sonâs command in 1862. This division performed with distinction in the Shenandoah Valley during the spring of 1862. Since that period of the war, it had, under a number of leaders, performed reliably but with less notoriety. With the assignment of Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson in May 1863, the divi-...
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This division was formed after the Battle of Chancellorsville by combining Brockenbroughâs and Archerâs Brigades of Maj. Gen. A. P. Hillâs Light Di-vision with the brigades of Pettigrew and Davis. The latter two units were new only to the Army of Northern Virginia, having previously served in southeastern Virginia and North Carolina. At Gettysburg, Maj. Gen. Henry ...
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The cavalry of Maj. Gen. James E. B. âJebâ Stuart was historically regarded as the elite arm of the Army of Northern Virginia. During the first two years of the war, Stuartâs cavalry literally rode circles around opposing Union armies and bested the Federal cavalry in almost every engagement. This level of superiority began to change in 1863. In the spring of that year, Maj. Gen. ...
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This division was formed at Bermuda Hundred in late May 1864 from the brigades of Clingman, Colquitt, Hagood, and Martin. These units were part of Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregardâs forces opposing Butlerâs Army of the James outside Richmond. During the first part of the war, these brigades mostly served at various points along the Atlantic Seaboard. Due to limited combat ...
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Several conclusions can be drawn from studying the strengths and casualties of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Overland Campaign. First, it is apparent that Leeâs army was stronger than has previously been believed. Its strength at the start of the campaign was about 66,000 men, or 4,000 higher than the traditional figure of 62,000. If one includes the units temporarily ...
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Page Count: 400
Publication Year: 2013