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From Fort Marion to Fort Sill

A Documentary History of the Chiricahua Apache Prisoners of War, 1886-1913

Alicia Delgadillo

Publication Year: 2013

From 1886 to 1913, hundreds of Chiricahua Apache men, women, and children lived and died as prisoners of war in Florida, Alabama, and Oklahoma. Their names, faces, and lives have long been forgotten by history, and for nearly one hundred years these individuals have been nothing more than statistics in the history of the United States’ tumultuous war against the Chiricahua Apache.

Based on extensive archival research, From Fort Marion to Fort Sill offers long-overdue documentation of the lives and fate of many of these people. This outstanding reference work provides individual biographies for hundreds of the Chiricahua Apache prisoners of war, including those originally classified as POWs in 1886, infants who lived only a few days, children removed from families and sent to Indian boarding schools, and second-generation POWs who lived well into the twenty-first century. Their biographies are often poignant and revealing, and more than sixty previously unpublished photographs give a further glimpse of their humanity.

This masterful documentary work, based on the unpublished research notes of former Fort Sill historian Gillett Griswold, at last brings to light the lives and experiences of hundreds of Chiricahua Apaches whose story has gone untold for too long.

Published by: University of Nebraska Press


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pp. 1-3

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. iii-v


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p. vii-vii


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pp. viii-x

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pp. xi-xvi

Gillett Griswold, director of the U.S. Army Field Artillery Museum from 1954 to 1979, accepted the position when the museum consisted of one building at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. By the time he retired his contribution to the museum complex had been significant: it consisted of twenty-six buildings, including eight exhibit buildings, and eleven sites listed in the ...

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pp. xvii-xix

I am grateful to many people whose help is appreciated and I would like to recognize them. Two people in particular, Edwin R. Sweeney and Mir-I met Ed in 1987 at Cañon de los Embudos, Sonora, Mexico, the site where the Chiricahuas negotiated their surrender terms in March 1886, a fortuitous place to begin an extraordinary journey into all things Chir-...

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pp. xxi-xliii

When Gillett Griswold compiled “The Fort Sill Apaches: Their Vital Statistics, Tribal Origins, Antecedents,” during 1958–61, the survivors and descendants of that people were mostly living in two widely separated locations: the area around Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and the Mescalero Apache Neither of these places was their historical homeland, which lay west ...

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pp. 1-10

Aaitsa; Aanitsa; Aanitsao; Frank Ahnitsa; Ahnitza; Georgia Aanitsa.He was Dahahtsozhn’s brother, Beshadé’s husband, and Susie Aan-itso’s father. He was enrolled in Carlisle on April 30, 1887 as “Borgia Aanitsa, age 10, height 4'8½", weight 88, mother living, father dead.” He was assigned to work for Samuel Smith of Holicong, Pennsylvania, ...

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pp. 11-29

Bahnahtris; Banahtze; Bahnasttli; Bahnahtsis; Banatsi. A widowed sister of Chatto (Alfred), Bahnahtsi lived in Chatto’s village at Fort Sill. Bahnahtsi attended the 1898 Trans Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska. Among the 400–500 American Indian ...

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pp. 30-58

Cahgahashen; Chinchee. Her first husband probably died in Mexico during the 1885–86 Geronimo campaign; their son was born in 1886. Cahgahahshy married Martine (Charles); they had seven children: Bertha, Martha, June, Roscoe, Norma, Jessie, and George Martine. She settled ...

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pp. 59-74

Dahdosumer, an old woman, died on September 18, 1897 [se5253].1 Dahkeya (Mike) c. 1868–1899 nd Dahkuja. Probably “Askaecha,” listed in Kaahteney’s band in 1884 as a single sixteen-year-old. Dahkeya surrendered in March 1886 with Chihuahua’s group. He married Lulu Geronimo; their children were Joe, Nina,, ...

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pp. 75-82

Eatech. He was enrolled in Carlisle on April 30, 1887, as “Alfred Eateh, orphan, age 10, height 4'6", weight 75, Indian name ‘E-at-eh.’” He was assigned to E. Livezey of Buckmanville, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, June 23–September 15, 1888. Discharged from school on March 2, 1892, due to ill ...

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pp. 83-88

Daisy Sinclair. Born about 1879, Daisy was a daughter of Tsaltaykoo and Fatty (David) and a sister of Kenoi (Samuel); for half-siblings see Agnes Fatty; and she was a cousin of Kaywaykla. Major William Sinclair, commander of Company H, 5th Infantry, at Mount Vernon named her after his wife, ...

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pp. 89-111

Gahzhe ?–1894 Unidentified Nothing is recalled about this woman, who died on June 9, 1894 [nw5156].1 Ganthkisen ?–1894 ch ? Gansaychissen. The mother of Ditoen, Ganthkisen probably ...

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pp. 112-116

Hahdungeeun. Hahdunkey was related to Kaywaykla. She married Perico; they had two children. In the spring of 1887 Hahdunkey opted to join Perico at Fort Pickens while prisoners at Fort Marion were preparing for transfer to Alabama. Hahdunkey died on ...

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pp. 117-124

c. 1870–? Unidentified Iadistsa. She was enrolled in Carlisle on April 30, 1887, as “Henrietta Iadista.” Discharged on October 16, 1889, she was sent Alabama, where she likely died.1 Iahanetha (Maggie) c. 1875–1889 Unidentified fig. 18 Maggie Lauethla. She was enrolled in Carlisle on April 30, 1887 as “Maggie Iahanetha, father dead, mother living, age 12, height 4'7", weight 87.” She died of ...

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J [Includes Image Plates]

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pp. 126-134

Jago ?–1899 ch The mother of Stephen Kyzha, Jago died on April 28, 1899 [sw5018].1 Jahkenishishn 1869–1908 bd Her name Jahkenishishn means “black girl.” She was the daughter of Nastihdeh and Ettsohnn (Bonita). Her full siblings were Fun (Larry), ...

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pp. 135-158

Kaahtennae; Kaahtenny; Kaatenney; Kaetena; Kaetenna; Kahahtenai; Kaahtonai; Kantenné; Kantinno; Kayatennae; Looking Glass; Cartridges was a nephew of Konthlekizh and was related to Chihuahua, perhaps through one of Chihuahua’s earlier wives. A prominent warrior, Kaaht-eney was a major figure of considerable authority and influence among ...

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pp. 159-167

Lagadasihn ?–1894 ws Her Apache name Lagadasihn means “looking through something.” She was the mother of Yahbeclothlay (Henry), and a wife of Baykathenn. Lagadasihn died in Alabama.1 See also Baykathenn; Yahbeclothlay (Henry). ...

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pp. 168-183

Macemy (Jo) 1854–1909 Unidentified Nothing is remembered about this man, who died in 1909 [ne5243].1 Mahgado 1857–1904 nd Bageldoh. He was the son of Nahkeshahn and a full brother of Ototie. Mahgado was a survivor of Tres Castillos. He was listed in Nana’s band as ...

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pp. 184-214

Nachekea (Susie) c. 1875–1889 ws fig. 34 Susia Nachke. She was enrolled in Carlisle on April 30, 1887, as “Susie Nachekea, father dead, mother living, age 12, height 4'6", weight 82.” Susie died of ...

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p. 215-215

Oskissay c. 1868–? ch Goskayzhn; Gothkayzhn. A daughter of Ihzeh, Oskissay was a full sister of David Kazhe and half-sister of Morgan Kazhe. Oskissay married Tissnolthtos; they had ...

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pp. 216-222

Palatchay (Godfrey) c. 1873–1890 ch Palutchy; Godfrey Balatchu. He was enrolled in Carlisle on November 4, 1886, as “Godfrey Palatchay, father and mother living, age 13, height 4'11½", weight 96, Indian ...

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pp. 223-225

Ramon 1822–1898 ws Jamon; Ramone; Zahmon; Zamon. He was married to Zehgolthchede. An important medicine man, prior to 1886 he was a principal informant for Captain John Bourke’s ethnological studies of Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches. Ramon ...

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pp. 226-243

Sago (Jim) c. 1870–1901 wm ch Old Sago. His parents were Coshey and Tom (Chiricahua), and his full siblings were Horace Yahnahki and Hettie Tom. Sago married Alice Longfellow; they had two children, Harold and Rufus Sago. Sago died on July ...

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pp. 244-263

She was an older sister of Effie Zaienah, a niece of Gonahsin, and related to Guyan. Taayzslath married Geronimo and they had two chil-Taayzslath stated in an interview conducted by Captain Emmet Craw-ford on April 1, 1884, that in the spring of 1883 she and twenty-two women and children and “one large boy” were taken prisoner after ...

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p. 264-264

Uahteen ?–1897 ch Indahdene. Her Apache name Uahteen means “got no teeth.” She was possibly a sister of Bashdelehi. Uahteen died on October 16, 1897 [s5459].1 Ugohun c. 1828–1917/1918 ch Ugohin; Nogohhin; Wgohnn. Ugohun was Zhonne’s mother ...

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pp. 265-267

Washington, George ?–1894 Unidentified Calico and red flannel cloth were issued to the prisoners to make clothing; missionaries in Alabama assumed that children without clothing were motherless. One morning a missionary asked a man why his son ...

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pp. 268-275

Yahbeclothlay (Henry) 1880–1899 ws Henry Longfellow; Gato. Yahbeclothlay was Lagadasihn and Baykathenn’s son and was not related to Alice Longfellow. Henry died on May 15, 1899 [se5201].1 Yahnahki (Horace) c. 1881–? wm ch ...

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pp. 276-279

Zaen (Penelope) c. 1870–1887 ch Penolpe Zanca. A daughter of Yuan, she was enrolled in Carlisle on December 8, 1886, as “Penelope Zaen, father dead, mother living, age 16, height 5'1", weight 97, home address Yu-en (mother).” She died of tuberculosis on ...


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pp. 281-322


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pp. 323-335


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pp. 337-359

E-ISBN-13: 9780803246256
E-ISBN-10: 0803246250
Print-ISBN-13: 9780803243798

Page Count: 432
Illustrations: 70 Images, 3 Maps
Publication Year: 2013