Law, Policy, and Ethical Issues
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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From the cloning of Dolly to the mapping of the human genome and the isolation of human embryonic stem cells, nations around the world continue to grapple with the possibilities posed by new genetic technologies, and especially with the question of how to harness and direct those possibilities for the benefit of humankind. ...
PART I: THE HISTORICAL AND REGULATORY LANDSCAPE
1 On Drawing Lessons from the History of Eugenics
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Almost every discussion of social issues in reprogenetics identifies eugenics as a central concern. Of course, there are other sources of unease at the prospect of modifying the genome either to treat disease or to enhance physical, mental, or behavioral characteristics. ...
2 Governmental Regulation of Genetic Technology, and the Lessons Learned
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For thousands of years, human beings have both deliberately and unintentionally changed the genetic composition of their world. By selectively breeding plants and animals to enhance desired characteristics, by extinguishing species, and even by simply choosing mates, humans have been “tampering” with the “genetic landscape” ...
3 Oversight of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: The Last Twenty Years
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Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) refer to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its variations, such as embryo freezing, gamete and embryo donation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Oversight falls into two general and sometimes overlapping categories. ...
PART II: ETHICAL ISSUES IN REPROGENETICS
4 Market Transactions in Reprogenetics: A Case for Regulation
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In a nation as pluralistic as the United States, establishing a case for the regulation of reprogenetic technologies is no easy task. Nonetheless, I argue here (as I have elsewhere; see Holland 2001a, 2001b) not for outlawing market transactions in reprogenetics but for regulating them in accordance with what I believe are shared, ...
5 Stem Cells, Clones, Consensus, and the Law
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The introduction of new technologies often forces us to reevaluate our moral convictions and ethical norms, but rarely do they invoke a completely uniform social response. The area of reproductive genetics stands as an example of the challenges associated with regulating an area where there is little or no social consensus about benefits and risks. ...
PART III: INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF REPROGENETICS
6 The Governance of Reprogenetic Technology: International Models
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Recently, American bioethics committees have begun to examine foreign models of biotechnology governance in order to develop their own domestic policy advice. President Clinton’s National Bioethics Advisory Committee (NBAC, 1999) and President Bush’s Council on Bioethics (2002, 2004) invited presentations from experts ...
7 Regulating Reprogenetics in the United Kingdom
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In 1978 the first test-tube baby, Louise Brown, was born in the United Kingdom. At that time there was no regulation or control of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) or embryo research in the United Kingdom. The technology was in its infancy, but it was clear that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and future developments in the technology ...
8 The Evolution of Public Policy on Reprogenetics in Canada
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The cultural attitudes and values broadly espoused by a society influence how a country’s public policy evolves to deal with the choices posed by new technologies. It is useful to remember that, despite sharing a language and a 3,000-mile-long border, Canada and the United States have quite different histories. ...
PART IV: REGULATING REPROGENETICS IN THE UNITED STATES
9 A Brief History of Public Debate about Reproductive Technologies: Politics and Commissions
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Over the past thirty years, society has faced a steady progression of advances in medically assisted reproduction and genetics that have been simultaneously considered everything from miraculous to immoral, depending on one’s point of view. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies, ...
10 Possible Policy Strategies for the United States: Comparative Lessons
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My “marching orders” for this chapter came in the form of a number of questions: Why is there such a lack of regulation in the area of reprogenetics in the United States? What sorts of strategies might be employed to replace the numerous and frequently overlapping advisory bodies with more effective and broader regulation? ...
11 The Development of Reprogenetic Policy and Practice in the United States: Looking to the United Kingdom
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The development of reprogenetics policy in the United States is in a state of flux. The most recent and perhaps most influential development in this area comes in the form of the 2004 report of the President’s Council on Bioethics, Reproduction and Responsibility: The Regulation of New Biotechnologies. ...
12 Reprogenetics and Public Policy: Reflections and Recommendations
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At the first of the discussions that led eventually to the writing of this chapter, a respected clinician-researcher in the world of reprogenetic medicine referred to his field as “one big embryo experiment.” The phrase nicely captures what this chapter is about. It is about the ethical issues and policy challenges that arise ...
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Page Count: 320
Publication Year: 2007