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Bats in Forests

Conservation and Management

edited by Michael J. Lacki, John P. Hayes, and Allen Kurta foreword by Merlin D. Tuttle

Publication Year: 2007

Although bats are often thought of as cave dwellers, many species depend on forests for all or part of the year. Of the 45 species of bats in North America, more than half depend on forests, using the bark of trees, tree cavities, or canopy foliage as roosting sites. Over the past two decades it has become increasingly clear that bat conservation and management are strongly linked to the health of forests within their range. Initially driven by concern for endangered species—the Indiana bat, for example—forest ecologists, timber managers, government agencies, and conservation organizations have been altering management plans and silvicultural practices to better accommodate bat species. Bats in Forests presents the work of a variety of experts who address many aspects of the ecology and conservation of bats. The chapter authors describe bat behavior, including the selection of roosts, foraging patterns, and seasonal migration as they relate to forests. They also discuss forest management and its influence on bat habitat. Both public lands and privately owned forests are considered, as well as techniques for monitoring bat populations and activity. The important role bats play in the ecology of forests—from control of insects to nutrient recycling—is revealed by a number of authors. Bat ecologists, bat conservationists, forest ecologists, and forest managers will find in this book an indispensable synthesis of the topics that concern them.

Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press

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Foreword

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pp. ix-x

Today, many bat populations are only small remnants of former numbers. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in the United States, for example, millions of now endangered Indiana and gray myotis lived in single caves. Even species that are still considered common have, in fact, declined markedly. For example, in the 1870s great migratory flocks of ...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

At least 45 species of bats occur in the United States and Canada, and 27 of these use trees for roosting at least some of the time (see table P.1), and presumably forage in or near forested areas as well. All forest-dwelling bats in North America are insectivorous, and all except one species, the pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus; Antrozoidae), belong to the family Ves- ...

Contributors

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pp. xv-xvi

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1. BATS IN FORESTS: WHAT WE KNOW AND WHAT WE NEED TO LEARN

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pp. 1-16

Ten years ago, reports about the ecology, management, and behavior of bats in North America were, with few exceptions, centered on aggregations of animals in caves and human-made structures. Over the past decade, however, the focus has changed toward trying to understand how many of these same species interact with forested environments and how ...

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2. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BATS ROOSTING IN TREE CAVITIES AND UNDER BARK

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pp. 17-60

Bats spend more time roosting than in any other activity. Thus, it is not surprising that some researchers have argued that roost availability influences the diversity of bat communities (Humphrey 1975), that destruction of roosts is responsible for population declines (Evelyn et al. 2004; Lunney et al. 1988), or that, in this book, there are several chapters devoted ...

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3. BEHAVIOR AND DAY-ROOSTING ECOLOGY OF NORTH AMERICAN FOLIAGE-ROOSTING BATS

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pp. 61-82

Bats depend on roosts for hibernation, mating, rearing of young, and protection from predators and adverse weather conditions. Consequently, roosts play a critical role in the survival of all species of bats (Kunz and Lumsden 2003), and destruction of roosts is a key factor in the decline of many bat populations throughout the world, including North America ...

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4. FORAGING ECOLOGY OF BATS IN FORESTS

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pp. 83-128

Bats have a greater diversity of behavior, diet, and morphology than any other mammalian order. As the primary predators of nocturnal insects, bats play a significant role in all forested ecosystems (Fenton 2003). Despite the importance of bats in forests, the information on foraging behavior for many species in North America is limited. This dearth of in- ...

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5. IMPORTANCE OF NIGHT ROOSTS TO THE ECOLOGY OF BATS

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pp. 129-152

A succinct definition of night roosting is “anytime a bat stops flying at night” (S. Cross, pers. comm.). Discerning the role of this behavior in the lives of bats seems fundamental to understanding the life history of these volant, nocturnal organisms, but the difficulty in studying bats roosting at night, especially in forested areas, has discouraged rigorous studies...

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6. MIGRATION AND USE OF AUTUMN, WINTER, AND SPRING ROOSTS BY TREE BATS

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pp. 153-176

Compared with the tremendous progress made during recent years in determining the importance of trees to bats in summer, our understanding of the use of forests by bats during other seasons of the year is limited. Even so, certain patterns are apparent from the fragmentary information available on use of roosts by bats in autumn, winter, and spring. In this ...

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7. SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES AND MANAGEMENT OF HABITAT FOR BATS

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pp. 177-206

The twenty-first century has seen a shift in the philosophy and practice of forestry. Historic assumptions that prevailed as recently as three decades ago have been challenged in light of new concepts and practices, developed through advances in research and lessons from practical experience. The goals of forest management today encompass a wider ar- ...

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8. THE INFLUENCES OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON BATS IN NORTH AMERICA

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pp. 207-236

In recent years, interest in the ecology of bats and the influences of forest management on bat populations has increased substantially. This interest stems from the interplay of technological advances opening up new areas of research, a greater understanding of the importance of ecological roles played by bats in forest ecosystems, an increased recognition of ...

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9. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR LANDSCAPE-LEVEL MANAGEMENT OF BATS

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pp. 237-281262

Bats exhibit a high degree of temporal and spatial mobility across a variety of habitats. This characteristic dictates using a landscape approach for their management. During nightly foraging flights, bats may travel through many distinct habitats. Within a single season, a colony of bats may switch roosts frequently and use roosts located in separate forest ...

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10. ASSESSING POPULATION STATUS OF BATS IN FORESTS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

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pp. 263-292

Interest in bats has increased during the past two decades in scientific communities, land management agencies, and the general public (Fenton 1997). Growing knowledge of the interdependence between bats and forests in concert with concern over human-induced changes to forested ecosystems has spurred the need for a greater understanding of the ecol- ...

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11. PLANNING FOR BATS ON FOREST INDUSTRY LANDS IN NORTH AMERICA

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pp. 293-318

Natural disturbances (e.g., fire, wind throw, and ice storms) and associated successional changes and conversion of forests to alternative land uses (e.g., roads, agriculture, and urban uses) have obvious influences on habitat for bats in North America. Additionally, management of North American forests to provide wood products has a widespread and often ...

Author Index

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pp. 319-324

Species Index

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pp. 325-326

Subject Index

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pp. 327-329


E-ISBN-13: 9780801891687
E-ISBN-10: 080189168X
Print-ISBN-13: 9780801884993
Print-ISBN-10: 0801884993

Page Count: 352
Illustrations: 2 color illus., 32 b&w photos, 12 line drawings
Publication Year: 2007

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Bats -- Conservation -- North America.
  • Bats -- Ecology -- North America.
  • Bats -- Effect of forest management on -- North America.
  • Forest animals -- Ecology -- North America.
  • Forest animals -- Conservation -- North America.
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