Feeling Like Saints
Lollard Writings after Wyclif
Publication Year: 2014
“Lollard” is the name given to followers of John Wyclif, the English dissident theologian who was dismissed from Oxford University in 1381 for his arguments regarding the eucharist. A forceful and influential critic of the ecclesiastical status quo in the late fourteeth century, Wyclif’s thought was condemned at the Council of Constance in 1415. While lollardy has attracted much attention in recent years, much of what we think we know about this English religious movement is based on records of heresy trials and anti-lollard chroniclers. In Feeling Like Saints, Fiona Somerset demonstrates that this approach has limitations. A better basis is the five hundred or so manuscript books from the period (1375–1530) containing materials translated, composed, or adapted by lollard writers themselves.
These writings provide rich evidence for how lollard writers collaborated with one another and with their readers to produce a distinctive religious identity based around structures of feeling. Lollards wanted to feel like saints. From Wyclif they drew an extraordinarily rigorous ethic of mutual responsibility that disregarded both social status and personal risk. They recalled their commitment to this ethic by reading narratives of physical suffering and vindication, metaphorically martyring themselves by inviting scorn for their zeal, and enclosing themselves in the virtues rather than the religious cloister. Yet in many ways they were not that different from their contemporaries, especially those with similar impulses to exceptional holiness.
Published by: Cornell University Press
Title Page, Copyright
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This book is a study of lollardy, a religious movement associated with the Oxford heresiarch John Wyclif (ca. 1328–84). Maligned by contemporary chroniclers, condemned as heretical, then later celebrated as brave harbingers of the Reformation by protestant historiographers, Wyclif and his followers have been more noised about than read...
1. The Lollard Pastoral Program
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At some point in the 1390s, a parish priest in the West Midlands formulated a large ambition: to reconfigure traditional pastoral teaching so that it would reflect his new convictions and lead his own little flock toward salvation.1 What he produced in pursuit of this goal has broad implications for our understanding of the lollard movement. 2...
2. God’s Law
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Near the end of the final chapter of the General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, as the writer’s defense of biblical translation comes to an end, he expresses his hopes for the effect that English translation might have upon the people of England. Until now they have been deprived of access to scripture, whether because of the negligence of the clergy or their own sinfulness...
3. Lollard Prayer
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How did lollards pray? Until recently, there was little interest in this question. Yet the historical study of religion asks different questions now than it did in the past. Sharpened interest in religious practice has produced attentive studies of local variations in worship, sacramental practices, saints’ cults, the uses of written prayers, and so on...
4. Lollard Tales
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In this chapter I investigate a very common and widespread characteristic of lollard writings: their use of narrative forms, especially but not only drawn from the bible, to give their readers models for holy living. In these narratives they provide their readers with a training in feeling. Lollard writers use stories, that is, to show their readers how to feel like saints...
5. Lollard Parabiblia
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The governing intention of the Wycliffite bible translation project has often been asserted or assumed. Lollards translated the entire text of the bible, Hebrew Bible and New Testament, into English because they wanted laymen and laywomen to be able to read all of its very own words for themselves, rather than having to rely on adulterated versions, interlarded with glosses and exempla that distort its message, as for example in sermons and pastoralia...
6. Moral Fantasie
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begin with two lengthy quotations from late medieval English writers concerned to educate their vernacular readers in biblical exegesis. Both develop a metaphor of reading the bible with proper understanding as eating a sweet food, hidden at first, that pleases and nourishes the soul...
7. Lollard Forms of Living
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This final chapter turns to examine in depth a set of lollardy’s most self-consciously literary writings: writings that are attentive to literary style and rhetoric and that develop with unusual thoroughness the possibilities of speaking “gostili.” What they mean by “gostili” speech is nothing new for the readers of this book: it is the lollard habit of redefining in spiritual or metaphorical terms a concept usually presented as material, bodily, or closely defined by institutional convention.1...
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In summary of this book’s findings, this Conclusion examines a largely neglected short text that eschews polemical declaration but that nonetheless within its short length touches on all the characteristic emphases in lollard writings that we have discovered across the course of this book, compactly providing us with an occasion to draw them together and to demonstrate how they allow us to identify and describe lollard writings more effectively...
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Page Count: 304
Publication Year: 2014
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth