Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain
Publication Year: 2012
After Britain abolished slavery throughout most of its empire in 1834, Victorians adopted a creed of "anti-slavery" as a vital part of their national identity and sense of moral superiority to other civilizations. The British government used diplomacy, pressure, and violence to suppress the slave trade, while the Royal Navy enforced abolition worldwide and an anxious public debated the true responsibilities of an anti-slavery nation. This crusade was far from altruistic or compassionate, but Richard Huzzey argues that it forged national debates and political culture long after the famous abolitionist campaigns of William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson had faded into memory. These anti-slavery passions shaped racist and imperialist prejudices, new forms of coerced labor, and the expansion of colonial possessions.
In a sweeping narrative that spans the globe, Freedom Burning explores the intersection of philanthropic, imperial, and economic interests that underlay Britain's anti-slavery zeal- from London to Liberia, the Sudan to South Africa, Canada to the Caribbean, and the British East India Company to the Confederate States of America. Through careful attention to popular culture, official records, and private papers, Huzzey rewrites the history of the British Empire and a century-long effort to end the global trade in human lives.
Published by: Cornell University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
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...2. A Union view of Britain’s Civil War betrayal of anti-slavery, 4. A view of slavery in the United States for British children, 1854 345. British expenditure on slave trade suppression, 1816–65 4313. The slave trade depicted, after Livingstone’s Last Journals, 1874 15314. Boats from HMS London chase a slave dhow near Zanzibar, 1881 153...
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I LIKE LIBRARIES. Much of this book was written in them. David Smith was a fantastic host at St. Anne’s, Oxford, while John Pinfold and Lucy McCann helped me navigate Rhodes House Library. I also benefi ted from the advice of librarians and staff at the Bodleian libraries (in all their many locations), Yale University’s libraries, the National Archives, the Brit-ish Library, Columbia University’s libraries, Anti-Slavery International, Cambridge University Library, the Gilder Lehrman Archive, the New-York ...
PROLOGUE: FREEDOM BURNING
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THE PAINTER captured the fi re burning. It happened in West Af-rica, on the banks of the Gallinas River. On 4 February 1845 sail-ors advanced from their ships in small boats to reach the African settlement and burn it to the ground. The fl ags of the vessels and the fl ames of the fi re refl ected on the surface of the water, as the moment was recorded by an unknown artist. As the village burned, he captured the smoldering sky and the assembled vessels, the fl aming houses and the raiding party. ...
1 AN ANTI-SLAVERY NATION
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DAWN ON the morning of 1 August 1834 brought a kind of free-dom to the enslaved women, men, and children of the British West Indies. As the sun rose, the Emancipation Act of the previous year made them free—legally free, at least. Patriotic prose, images, and poetry depicted the dawn of their freedom. Composed by the anti-slavery pub-lisher Josiah Conder, the above lines are typical of the celebration and self- satisfaction expressed by British abolitionists, politicians, and news-...
2 UNCLE TOM’S BRITAIN
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FIFTEEN YEARS into Victoria’s reign, Britain was enthralled with “a remarkable and very exciting story by an American lady, whose purpose is to exhibit the evils of slavery.”1 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin created a phenomenon that amazed contemporaries and has intrigued cultural historians. From 1852 the book racked up countless editions thanks to lax transatlantic copyright laws. Ten differ-ent editions came out in one October fortnight and forty were on offer ...
3 THE ANTI-SLAVERY STATE
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ANTI-SLAVERY’S TRANSITION from reformist crusade to national policy was a curious and complicated process. After centuries of supporting the slave trade, the British state was transformed, in stages, from the patron of slavery to its determined enemy. How and why did international suppression of the slave trade become an objective for successive Victorian governments? Various strands of government policy responded to the challenge and the relationship between anti-slavery and ...
4 BRITONS’ UNREAL FREEDOM
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GIVEN THE political struggles over anti-slavery in Victorian foreign policy, it would be surprising if anti-slavery did not cast long shad-ows over domestic policy. Having looked at the politics of anti-slavery abroad, we now turn to the ways anti-slavery sentiment affected domestic Britain. Although Britons had broadly agreed that slavery was incompatible with national freedom, they struggled over which rights and protections should subsequently be advanced or rejected. The splintering ...
5 POWER, PROSPERITY, AND LIBERTY
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IT WAS a painful truth for Victorian Britons, as the Earl of Clarendon observed in 1846, that “for our necessaries and luxuries of life, for the employment of our people, for our revenue, for our very position in the world as a nation, we are indebted to the production of slave labour.”1 As an anti-slavery pioneer, it was not clear how much Britain could or should isolate itself from other countries’ surviving (and often thriving) slave sys-tems. Debates over economic sanctions for the importation of slave-grown ...
6 AFRICA BURNING
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THE RELATIONSHIP between anti-slavery and British imperial power was complex.1 Before 1838, anti-slavery campaigning pro-moted imperial morality, reforming governance in the empire. After West Indian emancipation, this impulse contributed to a moral im-perialism, a forceful quest that pried into societies across the globe.2 With British slave-trade suppression on the west and east coasts of Africa came racial contempt and massive territorial expansion across the continent in ...
7 THE ANTI-SLAVERY EMPIRE
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QUEEN VICTORIA EYE, see too far” was the verdict of some Af-ricans living near the River Gambia when they encountered the electric searchlight of HMS Racer in January 1887. According to Edwin Parker, who recorded his service aboard the ship in a private jour-nal, the new light was useful for the sailors’ regular attempts to intimidate African societies along the west coast of Africa. On this occasion, the Royal Navy was intervening to enforce peace between local African communities ...
8 IDEOLOGIES OF FREEDOM
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THIS BOOK began with the burning of a village on the Gallinas River. The Royal Navy’s self-righteous arson epitomizes the di-lemma of Victorian anti-slavery in the question of whether freedom burned bright. Having looked at various theaters of politics and culture, high and low, touched by this same problem, it is appropriate to return to the metaphor. Comparisons between fi re and freedom are not just a fanci-ful conceit. Buxton hoped that Africa would, in the future, follow Britain’s ...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
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GLC Gilder Lehrman Collection, New-York Historical Society, New York...
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...1. PP 1846, l, “Class A Correspondence with the British Commissioners relating to the Slave Trade,” 38–39: Commodore Jones to the Lieut.-Governor of Sierra Leone, 7 Feb. 1845; ibid., 39–40: Commodore Jones to the Chiefs of the Gallinas, 24 Jan. 1845.2. PP 1846, l, 42: Commander C. H. M. Buckle to Commodore Jones, 3 Feb. 1845; ibid., 38–39: Commodore Jones to the Lieut.-Governor of Sierra Leone, 7 Feb. 1845. The communi-...
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Acquisitions Collection, Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Hartford, Conn.Backhouse Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Duke Univer-Bandinel Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Duke Univer-Beecher-Stowe Family Papers, Schlesinger Library, Cambridge, Mass.Lydia Maria Child Papers, Microfi lms from Library of Congress, Washington, D.C....
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Page Count: 312
Publication Year: 2012