Bringing Outsiders In
Transatlantic Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
Publication Year: 2009
For immigrants, politics can play a significant role in determining whether and how they assimilate. In Bringing Outsiders In, leading social scientists present individual cases and work toward a comparative synthesis of how immigrants affect-and are affected by-civic life on both sides of the Atlantic. Just as in the United States, large immigrant minority communities have been emerging across Europe. While these communities usually make up less than one-tenth of national populations, they typically have a large presence in urban areas, sometimes approaching a majority.
That immigrants can have an even greater political salience than their population might suggest has been demonstrated in recent years in places as diverse as Sweden and France. Attending to how local and national states encourage or discourage political participation, the authors assess the relative involvement of immigrants in a wide range of settings. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf provide a context for the particular cases and comparisons and draw a set of analytic and empirical conclusions regarding incorporation.
Published by: Cornell University Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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This volume began as a conference at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study on April 22–23, 2005. Our fi rst debt of gratitude is to the outstanding scholars who worked long and traveled far to that event for little but the intrinsic rewards of scholarly exchange. Old friendships were reinforced by this process and new ones formed. The co-editors planned the conference, with the help of a cluster of visiting ...
PART I. FRAMEWORKS
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1. Setting the Context
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Over the last six decades, millions of immigrants have arrived in the wealthy democracies of Western Europe and North America. Despite increasing restrictions, the volume of arrivals remained high as families reunite, asylum seekers fi nd safe ha-vens, undocumented workers cross borders, and residents of the new accession states of the European Union travel west. The current economic crisis may slow these fl ows, ...
2. Modeling Immigrant PoliticalIncorporation
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By defi nition, immigrants have always been included in some fashion or other in the states to which they permanently migrate. In some countries and at some times, immigrants have been granted or have seized a route from the political margins to the center, at least across generations. They have protested, voted, engaged in informal So there is variation along several dimensions, many illuminating case studies, and ...
PART II. EXPLORING IMMIGRANTPOLITICAL INCORPORATION
What is immigrant political incorporation? How does it differ from the po-litical incorporation of minority groups or uninvolved native-born individuals in the majority population? Does political incorporation resemble economic or social in-corporation? Does political inclusion take varied forms, follow different routes, or get blocked at predictable points along the way? Is political exclusion simply the mirror ...
3. Immigrants and Their Offspringin Europe as Political Subjects
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Academic, political, and policy debates have offered many insights about the position of immigrants and of their offspring in Europe. As Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (chap. 2 in this volume) have outlined, the themes raised about immigrants depend on the local, national, and international context, in particular the orientation of those in power toward immigrants and the mobilization of the ...
4. Lost in Translation? A Critical Reappraisal of the Conceptof Immigrant Political Incorporation
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The return to high levels of immigration to the United States over the last forty years has generated a familiar concern for how immigrants are changing U.S. society. Sometimes this concern is motivated by a prickly nativism, a lingering anxi-ety about what “they” are doing to “us” and how much we might have to change to include, accommodate, or simply tolerate “them” (Huntington 2004). More broad-...
PART III. IMMIGRANTS’ LOCAL POLITICALOPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES
Whereas national laws govern the entry, legal status, and naturalization of im-migrants to a host country, more local arenas shape their lives. The neighborhoods, cities, and regions in which immigrants live; the schools their children attend; the li-braries they frequent; the police they encounter; and other civic services they use are, as they are for the native-born, the political entities most important in immigrants’ ...
5. Swiss Citizenship: A Municipal Approach to Participation?
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...“The Federal Council [Swiss Government] is directly responsible to the peo-ple. The sovereign has decided. Its vote should be applied and there is nothing else to be added.” With these words, Christoph Blocher, former minister of justice, endorsed the Swiss voters’ September 2004 defeat of measures that would have widened access to citizenship for the immigrant second generation and introduced jus soli principles ...
6. The New Urban Politicsof Integration: A View from the Gateway Cities
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Major population shifts have always affected local politics fi rst in the United States, having an impact on national politics only after a long and winding trail. When a large number of people reach new destinations, established residents often react unfavorably to their arrival, which perturbs local politics. In time, the new entrants fi nd their way into local politics through some combination of organizing themselves, ...
7. Political Institutionsand Rainbow Coalitions: Immigrant-Minority Relationsin New York and Hartford
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Immigration has reshaped the demography of the metropolitan United States in the last half century. Cities, once largely a mix of blacks and whites, are now de-cidedly multiracial, with rapidly increasing numbers of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. There are countless questions about how these demo-graphic shifts will change the urban political landscape. One of the most important ...
PART IV. IMMIGRANTS’ NATIONAL POLITICALOPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES
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We turn next to the national level. The interest groups, electoral system, po-litical party incentives, statutory and constitutional structures, and cultural traditions of a country all emerge as critical infl uences on immigrants’ political incorporation. Both immigrants and native-born political actors have an array of choices to make and strategies to consider. Nevertheless, as at the local level, elites who support im-...
8. Successes and Failures of MuslimIntegration in Franceand Germany
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If we compare immigrant integration in Europe and the United States, we immediately hit a paradox. In Europe, religion and how to deal with Muslim immi-grants are indisputably the major topics. By contrast, in the United States the main problem seems to be language and how to deal with Hispanic immigrants (Zolberg and Woon 1999; Huntington 2004). This is despite the fact that it is the United States ...
9. A Multicultural Paradise? The Cultural Factor in Dutch Integration Policy
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Western European countries heatedly debate the issue of how much and what kind of cultural differentiation is to be allowed in the public domain. Many have witnessed the rise of right-wing populist parties that see migrants as a threat to social cohesion and national identity (Van Kersbergen and Krouwel 2003; Michael Minkenberg, chap. 10 in this volume). Whether the integration policy in the past ...
10. Anti-Immigrant Politics in Europe: The Radical Right, Xenophobic Tendencies,and Their Political Environment
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Today’s European societies are characterized by socially and economically marginal immigrant communities. Political elites — largely divided on this issue — respond mainly when the media report or public outcries push them, rarely in immi-grants’ favor. More established parties compete with old and new radical right parties, which now regularly strive to push the political agenda on immigration and multi-...
11. Immigrants’ Incorporation inthe United States after 9/11: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back
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The last decade has been momentous for immigrants to the United States and for the course of their integration into U.S. society. If we look for a smooth trajec-tory, we will be sorely disappointed. Instead, immigrants’ path to integration has been characterized by forward progress interrupted by setbacks and new obstacles. The bitter debate over immigration legislation that has roiled the U.S. Congress since ...
12. Building through Exclusion: Anti-Immigrant Politics in the United States
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In January 2004, President George W. Bush called for comprehensive immi-gration reform in launching his reelection campaign. Immigration became a high profi le issue in U.S. national politics in late 2005, received unprecedented attention in spring 2006, and remained signifi cant through parts of the 2008 presidential elec-tion. Usually, this pattern happens during major economic downturns but this focus ...
PART V. IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL OPPORTUNITYSTRUCTURES BEYOND THE STATE
In previous chapters in this volume, Marco Martiniello (chap. 3) and Lor raine Minnite (chap. 4) call for greater attention to transnationalism in understanding immigrants’ political behavior; the chapters in Part V respond. In chapter 13, Eva Østergaard-Nielsen takes a bottom-up approach to this issue, looking at how Turk-ish and Kurdish immigrants to Western Europe balance mobilization around issues ...
13. The End of Closet PoliticalTransnationalism? The Role of Homeland Politics in the PoliticalIncorporation of Turks and Kurds in Europe
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In the Danish local elections in the early 1990s, a Turkish-origin candidate was listed for the Social Democratic Party in one of the Copenhagen constituencies. He was running in an area with a high concentration of migrants, especially Turkish-origin migrants, who had gained the right to vote in local elections more than a de-cade earlier. Then, as now, the support for the Social Democratic Party, which was ...
14. Organizing Immigration Interestsin the European Union: Constraints and Opportunities for SupranationalMigration Regulation and Integration
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Assuming that immigrant incorporation is affected by host-country recep-tion and policy environments, attitudinal and institutional norms reveal how Eu-ropeans reconcile their diverse interests around migration. Moreover, they provide key insights about how democratic societies may accommodate immigrant groups in their midst—a question driving the rationale of this book. In a global era of new ...
PART VI. IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICALRESOURCES AND STRATEGIES
Individual migrants and immigrant groups are neither passive recipients of native-born politicians’ actions nor helpless victims of extant political institutions and practices. Earlier chapters in Bringing Outsiders In have already pointed to im-migrant agency. At a theoretical level, Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (chap. 2), Marco Martiniello (chap. 3), and Lorraine C. Minnite (chap. 4, all in this ...
15. The State and Ethno-ReligiousMobilization in Britain
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The migration into western democratic nation-states of the last few decades has seen an assertive politics in several countries on the part of the migrants and second-generation immigrants, explored here with particular reference to Britain. Of course, migrants and members of minorities do not have to participate in poli-tics as migrants or as minorities; they may even eschew such categorization and the ...
16. Differences in the City: Parallel Worlds, Migration, and Inclusionof Differences in the Urban Space
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The city attracts diversity: different ways of life, different trajectories, and dif-ferent socioeconomic positions. Its anonymity promises liberty and attracts people who are searching for new opportunities. The city simultaneously combines the promise of indifference toward diversity (as outlined by Simmel 2001 ) and of a possible social ascension, thereby particularly attracting people on the move. Cities ...
17. In Pursuit of Inclusion: Citizenship Acquisition among Asian Immigrants
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For immigrants in the United States, the acquisition of U.S. citizenship is a critical prerequisite for political inclusion because naturalized citizens enjoy many of the same rights and privileges afforded to individuals born on U.S. soil, including the right to vote and hold elective offi ce (with the exception of the presidency). For much of history of this country, race (which was often synonymous with national origin) ...
18. Entering the Precincts of Power: Do National Differences Matter for ImmigrantMinority Political Representation?
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The 2005 riots in the French suburbs brought to the fore in a dramatic way our need to better understand how immigrants and their descendants are integrated into European societies and how European patterns compare with those that have developed in the United States. The riots also made clear the need to revisit compara-tive perspectives that have been prominent in the scholarly literature. Much of the ...
PART VII. THE ROAD AHEAD
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By this point, Bringing Outsiders In has viewed immigrant political incorpora-tion through various lenses—in local arenas, within and across countries, in supra-national organizations, and across national boundaries. The authors have examined particular groups, distinct characteristics of groups and individuals, and an array of political opportunity structures. We have considered how and why immigrants seek ...
19. Understanding ImmigrantPolitical Incorporationthrough Comparison
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About 200 million individuals, approximately 3 percent of the world popu-lation, live outside the country where they were born. Over 100 million migrants live in the more developed regions of the world, including 9 million in Northern Eu-rope, 22 million in Western Europe, 6 million in Canada, and 38 million in the United States. Proportionally, 9 percent of the residents of Northern Europe, 12 percent of ...
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Richard Alba is distinguished professor of sociology at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and co-author (with Victor Nee) of the award-winning book Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigra-tion (Harvard University Press, 2003). He continues to research the incorporation of immigrants and their children in North America and Western Europe....
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Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 2009