Anti-Americanisms in World Politics
Publication Year: 2006
Anti-Americanism has been the subject of much commentary but little serious research. In response, Peter J. Katzenstein and Robert O. Keohane have assembled a distinguished group of experts, including historians, polling-data analysts, political scientists, anthropologists, and sociologists, to explore anti-Americanism in depth, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The result is a book that probes deeply a central aspect of world politics that is frequently noted yet rarely understood.
Katzenstein and Keohane identify several quite different anti-Americanisms-liberal, social, sovereign-nationalist, and radical. Some forms of anti-Americanism respond merely to what the United States does, and could change when U.S. policies change. Other forms are reactions to what the United States is, and involve greater bias and distrust. The complexity of anti-Americanism, they argue, reflects the cultural and political complexities of American society. The analysis in this book leads to a surprising discovery: there are as many ways to be anti-American as there are ways to be American.
Published by: Cornell University Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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Talking to friends and associates is an intriguing test of the interest people outside one’s field of research take in a book project. Eyes often glaze over as we begin to describe the politics of small states or the procedures of international organizations,and they do so even more if we try to explain some abstractions of contemporary political science. When we started this book on anti-Americanism, however, our...
Introduction: The Politics of Anti-Americanisms
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In 1941 Henry Luce spoke of the coming of “the American Century.”1 Today commentators across the political spectrum emphasize America’s dominant military capabilities and economic strength. Many observers have also argued that the United States uniquely benefits from the wave of economic liberalization and democratization that followed the end of the cold war. Joseph S. Nye has coined a catchy phrase, ...
I. Anti-Americanism and Americanism
1. Varieties of Anti-Americanism:A Framework for Analysis
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Anti-Americanism has a historical pedigree dating back to the eighteenth century.Since World War II such sentiment has waxed and waned in various parts of the world. American GIs were welcomed widely in the 1940s as liberators of a Europe occupied by Nazi Germany, and as protectors of a Europe that felt threatened by the Soviet Union in the 1950s. Yet a few years later the “ugly American” became an ...
2. Imagining America: The Promise and Peril of Boundlessness
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The European imagination was already groping toward a meaning for America bien avant la lettre. Hope and anxiety alike attended the enterprise from the outset. When Dante’s Ulysses dared “to venture the uncharted distances” oceanward of the Pillars of Hercules, in search of “the uninhabited world behind the sun,” was it heroism or hubris, a valorous quest to broaden the sphere of human endeavor or an insolent ...
II. Public Attitudes toward the united States
3. Anti-Americanism in Europe during the Cold War
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Anti-Americanism deservedly merits the label of an “essentially contested concept.”1 It is difficult to pinpoint precisely its nature and characteristics, since anti- Americanism in Europe has taken the form of a recurrent set of themes, some of them going back to the American Revolution,2 that have been played out over and over again in different tunes and rhythms. Indeed, the persistence of anti-Americanism ...
4. Disaggregating Anti-Americanism: An Analysis of Individual Attitudes toward the United States
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In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States, anti-Americanism—the opposition to America, its name, its ideals, and its actions—has become a central feature of public discourse in the United States and the world over. That anti-Americanism is spreading and deepening is taken as a matter-of-fact statement that does not deserve any further empirical validation. Charles Krauthammer, the ...
III. Anti-Americanism in Different Societies
5. The Distinctiveness of French Anti-Americanism
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“The French president has no rivals as global spokesman on anti-Americanism,” the Economist recently wrote.1 Between taking the lead in the anti-globalization movement in the late 1990s and in the movement against a war in Iraq in 2003, France confirmed its image as the “oldest enemy” among America’s friends.2 After all, even before the days of Chirac and de Gaulle, France had always seemed to be at the ...
6. Chinese Attitudes toward the United States and Americans
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The conventional wisdom in the United States is that anti-Americanism is on the rise in China, particularly among Chinese youth, as the state fosters nationalism to replace Marxism-Leninism as the basis of its legitimacy.1 This particular conventional wisdom about China has not been subject to careful empirical analysis.2 Part ...
7. Anti-Americanisms in the Arab World
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The findings of the 2003 Pew Global Attitudes Project survey that the bottom had fallen out of support for the United States in the Muslim world galvanized official and popular attention around the threat to national security posed by rampant anti-Americanism in the Arab world. Does this crisis of anti-Americanism really exist? As Timothy Mitchell puts it, most analysis of anti-Americanism in the region ...
IV. Dynamics of Anti-Americanism
8. Anti-Americanism as Schemas and Diacritics in France and Indonesia
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The phrase “anti-Americanism” suggests a set of individual, irrational attitudes toward Americans, U.S. society, or the U.S. government. We can view the matter in a slightly different way, however: in terms of the ideas, images, and theories (or“schemas,” a concept I develop below) held concerning the United States. These ideas might be negative, positive, or relatively neutral. People often hold a number ...
9. Legacies of Anti-Americanism: A Sociological Perspective
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Anti-Americanism is generally treated as yet another instance of American exceptionalism. Yet as the editors point out in the introduction, anti-imperial sentimentshave a long history. The Roman Empire would surely have aroused fear, envy, and enmity among the peoples subject to or threatened by its rule. Even if we restrict ourselves to the contemporary world, anti-Americanism has been studied only rarely...
V. Consequences and Conclusions
10. The Political Consequences of Anti-Americanism
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When one of us recently told a U.S. passport control officer about having just given a lecture in Canada on anti-Americanism, the officer commented, “We could just say we don’t care.” When told that such an option had deficiencies, the officer replied,Should we care about anti-Americanism? To persuade Americans that it should not be so easily shrugged off, one would have to provide evidence that anti-Americanism ...
Conclusion: Anti-Americanisms and the Polyvalence of America
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When we think about the varieties of anti-Americanism, two puzzles are readilyapparent. First, why does such a rich variety of anti-American views persist? Second,why do persistent and adaptable anti-American views have so little direct impact onpolicy and political practice? Anti-Americanism reflects opinion and distrust, andsometimes bias. Often it generates expressive activity: demonstrating, marching,...
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Page Count: 368
Publication Year: 2006