Remaking U.S. Trade Policy
From Protectionism to Globalization
Publication Year: 2007
The emergence of globalization was neither accidental nor inevitable. To make the "free flow" of commodities, capital, and money possible, governments first had to introduce a new political infrastructure. In Remaking U.S. Trade Policy, Nitsan Chorev focuses on trade liberalization in the United States from the 1930s to the present as she explores the political origins of today's global economy.
The ability of the U.S. government to impose its preferences on other governments is an important part of the story of globalization, but what is central to Chorev's analysis is understanding why the nation's leaders supported trade liberalization in the first place. For Chorev, the explanation lies in domestic political struggles. Advocates of free trade prevailed in the struggle with protectionists by working to change the institutions governing trade policy, replacing institutional arrangements that favored protectionism with new ones that favored a free-market approach.
The new institutional arrangements shifted authority from a protectionist Congress to liberal agencies at the executive branch and to the World Trade Organization. These transformations entailed a move from a politicized location, in which direct negotiations and debates dominate the process of decision-making, to bureaucratic and judicial arenas where a legal logic dominates and the citizens have little voice.
Published by: Cornell University Press
Download PDF (913.2 KB)
Title Page, Copyright
Download PDF (128.6 KB)
Download PDF (62.6 KB)
Download PDF (88.2 KB)
Globalization is an economic event, one that is pushing capitalism to itstechnological, geographical, and cultural extremes. The premise of thisbook, however, is that economic transformations require a political infra-structure. To make the “free ﬂow” of commodities, capital, money, or pro-fessionals possible, governments ﬁrst have to lower high duties, change...
Abbreviations for Archival Documents
Download PDF (62.7 KB)
Chapter OneThe Politics of Globalization
Download PDF (149.1 KB)
One of the initial and persistent images of the current process of global-ization has been the free ﬂow of commodities across borders.1 Rather thannational producers providing for domestic consumers, economic global-ization entails a radical increase in the consumption of commodities pro-duced elsewhere. In the year 2000, Americans consumed $9.3 billion worth...
Chapter TwoInstitutions in Domestic andInternational Politics
Download PDF (253.9 KB)
Globalization is (also) a political project. The formation and develop-ment of the global economy have entailed political struggles over the rulesgoverning global economic activity. Of great importance were politicalstruggles over the institutional reorganization of states and internationalorganizations. I show that internationalist businesses have won liberal...
Chapter ThreeSelective Protectionism, 1934–74
Download PDF (219.9 KB)
The United States was not always a champion of free trade principles.Rather, throughout the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries theU.S. government faithfully adhered to the demands of its protectionistfarmers and manufacturers and kept tariffs systematically high. By the mid1940s, however, protectionism has become an exception to policies deter-...
Chapter FourThe Origins of ConditionalProtectionism
Download PDF (229.0 KB)
Selective protectionism survived for forty years, but the economic reces-sion of the late 1960s led to its demise. Because of the new economic condi-tions, many manufacturing industries faced stiff international competitionand turned protectionist. In their turn, manufacturers who were poten-tially competitive in the international market pressed for greatly improved...
Chapter FiveConditional Protectionism, 1974–94
Download PDF (316.2 KB)
In the previous chapter I showed that the Trade Act of 1974 intended toweaken protectionism. But was the plan successful? Could the modiﬁedtrade remedy laws curb protectionism? Many trade scholars characterizethe 1980s in the United States as a period of “new” protectionism, but oth-ers convincingly showed that the heightened protectionist sentiments...
Chapter SixLegalized Multilateralism, 1994–2004
Download PDF (299.6 KB)
The process of trade liberalization in the United States is a story of politi-cal struggles and institutional shifts, both at the domestic and the interna-tional levels. Until the 1990s, the more challenging site of struggle for U.S.protectionist industries was at the domestic level. While internationalists hadthe upper hand, protectionists did gain some important concessions, and...
Download PDF (181.4 KB)
In the previous chapters I offered an account of the evolution of free-trade policies and practices in the United States. I showed how changes inthe institutional arrangements in place caused a gradual shift toward freetrade by substantively transforming the matrix of inﬂuence of state andnonstate actors. Supporters of liberal trade—among them exporters, users...
Download PDF (155.0 KB)
Download PDF (107.0 KB)
Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2007