Laying the BRICS of a New Global Order
From Yekaterinburg 2009 to eThekwini 2013
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: African Books Collective
Title Page, Copyright
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In the recent period we have witnessed a tendency amongst some major Western powers to ignore and by-pass multi-lateral institutions in their quest to affect regime change in a number of countries including Iraq, Libya and the Ivory Coast. In this context multi-lateralism, in theory and practice, has to be asserted and fought for as a dominant form of international...
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The editors of this volume owe an enormous amount of gratitude to a number of individuals and organisations that directly or indirectly feature in making this publication possible. First and foremost, we are grateful to the authors who contributed to this work, not only in agreeing to come on board but in being so responsive throughout the different phases we went...
About the Contributors
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■ ABDENUR, Adriana Erthal
General coordinator of the BRICS Policy Center in Rio de Janeiro and a professor at the Institute of International Relations at PUC-Rio. She has a PhD from Princeton and a BA from Harvard and previously taught at the New School and at Columbia University. From 2007 to 2009 she was a fellow of the India China Institute, and in 2010 she was a Fulbright...
Abbreviations and Acronyms
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Prologue: How Did We Get Here?
Narnia Bohler-Muller, Francis A. Kornegay, Jr
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The contributions in this compilation on the emergence of a new global order through BRICS serve to illustrate the complexities inherent in the creation of such a coalition – alternatively referred to as a ‘grouping’, ‘association’ or ‘forum’ – with each country differently situated geopolitically as well as ideologically and culturally, and in some instances...
BRICS I: The Terrain
Laying the BRICS of a New Global Order: A conceptual scenario
Francis A. Kornegay, Jr
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Understanding BRICS requires locating this grouping within a global integrationist pattern of transition. Call it post-Westphalian and post-Wilsonian in an accelerating Age of Global Integration.1 BRICS also symbolises an age of re-emergence; this is after centuries of non-western humiliation at the hands of a Euro-American west wherein simmering wells...
BRICS II: The Shanghai Cooperation Dimension
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1. A Partnership for Collective Emergence: BRICS in China’s International Strategy
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Since the late 1970s, China has pursued an international strategy that aims at accelerating economic and social modernisation by integrating into the West-dominated world order. Under the guidance of such a strategy, though sometimes inconsistent or even contradictory with official rhetoric, China’s foreign policy has appeared West-centric and even pro-West to some extent. With...
2. BRICS: A New Cooperation Model on the Horizon
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Since its first summit held in Yekaterinburg, Russia in June 2009, only two months after the second G20 summit in London, the BRICS group of countries has drawn widespread international attention. Since then, government officials, policy analysts and scholars around the world have been busy gauging the weight, significance and potential transformative...
3. China and the Indo-Pacific in Beijing’s Strategic Calculus
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As a traditionally land-oriented country, China has not paid much attention to the oceans along its coast until it became deeply involved in the global economic system and the international politics of the post-Cold War era. Now, both the Pacific and Indian Oceans have become significant geographic players that not only influence China’s economic...
4. Russia’s Identity Dilemmas: BRICS, the G8 and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
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Immediately after the collapse of the bipolar system which was the dominant model of international relations during the Cold War, various new global models, as well as sub-regional models, began to form. Eventually, an attempt was made to form a system in which the arbitration as regards to global and major regional problems belonged to a group of developed...
5. Russia’s global geopolitical calculus in the launching of BRICS
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To understand Russia’s intentions and actions in the launching of BRICS we have to review Russia’s foreign policy during last two decades, since the country ceased being a part of the Soviet Union. This period can be divided into several phases. Immediately after taking power by Boris Yeltsin the South in general and Africa in particular were sacrificed as an...
6. Russia in BRICS: Substantial or instrumental partnership?
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The history of world politics provides various examples of how international institutions emerged and developed. BRIC/BRICS, however, has no analogues. The witty acronym coined by a Goldman Sachs employee, Jim O’Neill, for commercial interests – namely, to draw clients’ attention to emerging markets – took on a life of its own. As Russian political...
7. Russia, BRICS and the Global Supply Chain of Resources for Development
Irina Abramova, Leonid Fituni
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According to the World Bank estimates, by 2025, global economic growth will predominantly be generated in emerging economies. By that time, six major emerging countries – Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation – will collectively account for more than half of all global growth. Several of these economies will...
8. The Russian Perspective on Global Governance: Normative Challenges
Alexandra A. Arkhangelskaya
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Globalisation presents a core challenge to many historical assumptions. Since the 1990s the global community has been pushing to modify the global governance system, which is based on the power architecture of the United Nations. However, the system, built as an outcome of World War II, has remained rigid. This is largely supported by the opposition of...
9. Placing BRICS in the Hierarchies and Power of the Modern World: A View from Russia
Leonid Fituni, Irina Abramova
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The modern concept of world governance is inextricably linked with the problematics of globalisation. The latter, throughout the last quarter of the 20th century, remained predominantly a financial and economic process. The then emerging political and institutional dimensions of globalisation were, prima facie, still business and finance related. They...
BRICS III: The IBSA Trilateral Dimension
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10. Theorising BRICS: Institutionalisation and Cooperative Agendas
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As BRICS countries move on from another Heads of State Summit, held in India on 29 March 2012, several questions naturally arise with regard to the growing institutionalisation of BRICS. These questions are being asked both within the member countries of BRICS and within the international community. The rest of the world largely views this group as...
11. Impulses: Trends that will Shape India’s World
Samir Saran, Sunjoy Joshi, Ashok Singh
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The emergence of BRICS has certainly been accompanied by a variety of discussions on its usefulness, cohesiveness, efficacy and purpose. Many commentators and analysts today question the rationale and usefulness of such a group due to the perceived and real difference in approaches of individual members on global governance issues, security...
12. India’s Security Calculus in Balancing Regional and Global Geopolitical Agendas
Tirumalai Cunnavakum Anandanpillai Rangachari
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The end of the Cold War held out the promise of peace and growth. In the two decades since, we are still far from resolving threats to peace and stability; indeed, there are manifestations in new forms and personas. New challenges – the environment and climate change, food, water and energy security, demography – have emerged with the potential for disturbing...
13. India’s South-South and Emerging Power Dilemma: IBSA–BRICS Equation
Hari Hara Subramaniam Viswanathan
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The process of globalisation has had many consequences, both intended and unintended. One of the unintended consequences was the need to modify some of the old simplistic categorisations. A more sophisticated paradigm was needed to look at the new roles that many of the erstwhile developing countries started to play. It was no longer valid to divide the...
14. India and the Indo-Pacific in New Delhi’s BRICS Calculus
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The Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) grouping has attracted much derision from commentators who argue that the five countries do not share a common purpose or identity.2 Indeed, even India’s Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, when recently asked about a possible merger between the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) trilateral forum and...
15. Brazil and BRICS: A Challenging Space for Global Relevance and Reform of an Obsolete World Order
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A useful mechanism for Brazilian international projection in the past five years, the BRICS is likely to lose importance over time, as its members confront the difficulties of articulating their conflicting interests in some sort of common vision. The role and relevance of the group will depend, obviously, on the United States’ and Europe’s capacity...
16. Laying the BRICS of a New World Order: Brazil’s Economic Stake in BRICS
Adriana Erthal Abdenur
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Leveraging two decades of sustained economic growth and substantial social improvements, Brazil has significantly boosted its role in the international arena, diversifying its bilateral agreements and ramping up participation in several multi-lateral organisations and groupings. In addition to expanding its influence regionally and globally, Brazil has...
17. Brazil in BRICS, a Manifest Destiny? Opposing views of Caracas and Itamaraty
María Gabriela Mata Carnevali
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The building of a new World Order is one of the hardest tasks of world diplomacy. The BRICS initiative seems to be a successful model of South-South cooperation in the sense that it constitutes an example of dialogue and counterbalance of power. This appears to have endowed its members the right to become ‘the voice’ of the South, but among the poorest...
18. Brazil, South American Regionalism and Re-defining the ‘Atlantic Space’
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Brazil’s economic rise over the past two decades has caused the country’s foreign policy-making elite to seek a more prominent role for Brazil in the international community. On a global scale, it has sought to assume more responsibility and engage in international institutions, often criticising established powers for not providing it with the status it deserves. Brazil’s...
19. Urban Governance, Social Cohesion and Sustainable Development: The Case of Brazil Within BRICS
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Fast economic growth rates in the developing world are much applauded for elevating millions from poverty. This acceleration in growth rates is most likely to coincide with fast urbanisation and increased tension and pressure on societal relations. The socio-political fabric of urban areas is especially important since cities are the home for most of the world’s...
20. South Africa’s Pretoria Agenda: The Role of State Sovereignty, Non-Intervention and Human Rights within the Context of Emerging Power Multi-lateralism
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Since 1994, South Africa’s international relations have been shaped by a post-apartheid, post-liberal ideology that is African centred and regionally focused. In addition to this expressly ‘African Agenda’, South Africa has shown an increasing commitment to multi-lateralism and the Global South agenda, reflecting a general shift in power from West to East...
21. Building the BRICS of a New Global System: Cape to Cairo – South Africa’s Search for Strategic Depth within BRICS
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The accession of South Africa to the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) group of countries in 2010, after concerted lobbying by the administration of President Jacob Zuma, raised some eyebrows in the international community. Critics pointed to the country’s relatively small size and particularly its low growth rates compared to its counterparts in...
22. South Africa in BRICS: Substance or Piggybacking?
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South Africa’s membership of BRICS coincides with and underscores the basic philosophy and dictates of the new paradigm1 underpinning its post-1994 foreign policy, particularly regarding its new national identity, mode of identification towards the outside world and role perception in global and regional politics. The new foreign policy paradigm reposes...
23. Domestic Challenges and the African Agenda: Is South Africa just another BRIC in the wall?
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Given its domestic challenges and attempts at forging a common agenda on the African continent, is there a synergy between South Africa’s domestic imperatives and continental ambitions and the agenda of BRICS? Is South Africa’s membership of BRICS going to enhance its position in the world or is it going to be an impediment when it comes to...
Epilogue: eThekwini and Beyond
Francis A. Kornegay, Narnia Bohler-Muller
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In the aftermath of the 5th BRICS Leadership Summit hosted by South Africa in Durban on 26 to 27 March 2013, there are a number of observations to be made against the background of a dynamic global economic context. Many of these observations serve to amplify commentaries throughout this compilation, which serves as a culmination of thinking that...
Page Count: 480
Publication Year: 2013