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The African Union Ten Years After

Solving African Problems with Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance

Mammo Muchie, Phindil Lukhele-Olorunju, Oghenerobor B. Akpor

Publication Year: 2013

This book looks at the first ten years of the African Union. This is the second in a series of books that will be produced each year from annual conferences held on the multi-faceted issue of African liberation. The key themes of the book explore ways of improving the effectiveness of the African Union, fostering unity amongst African countries through entrenchment of pan-Africanism, and building ownership of the African Union by the African people and their communities. In addition, the thoughts of key figures of pan-Africanism and black emancipation, such as Sylvester Williams and Frantz Fanon, are re-positioned to even greater contemporary relevance. Through its promotion of Ethiopianism, pan-Africanism and the African renaissance, we trust that this book will add new interest and a fresh perspective to how Africans move forward together into a post-colonial era where policies and actions are determined by the united agency of liberated Africans the world over.

Published by: African Books Collective


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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-3


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pp. i-iv

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pp. v-vi

This is the second in a series of books that we intend to produce every year by holding annual Africa liberation conferences to promote pan-Africanism and the African renaissance in order to make Africa its own leader in the 21st Century. The fi rst book on ?The African World; from Fragmentation to Unity? was produced last year, 2012. This year we will launch this second book that ...

Abbreviations and Acronyms

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pp. vii-viii

About the Contributors

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pp. ix-xiv

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INTRODUCTION - The African Union Ten Years After. Solving African Problems with Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance

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pp. xv-xxxvi

...?Dead, living, free, or in prison on the orders of the colonialists, it is not I who counts. It is the Congo, it is our people for whom independence has been trans-formed into a cage where we are regarded from the outside? History will one day have its say, but it will not be the history that Brussels, Paris, Washington, or the United Nations will teach, but that which they will teach in the countries ...

PART I - From the OAU to the African Union: State, Nation, Society and Good Governance in Africa

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CHAPTER 1 - Ghaddafi and the African Union. The End of an Era?

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pp. 3-16

In the area of integration, Muammar Ghaddafi will be remembered as a colossus. In Africa?s recent past, no one demonstrated greater commitment to regional integration efforts than him. From the legacy of Kwame Ukruma whose dogged commitment to African unity eventually led to the formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU); Ghaddafi , in a similar fashion, ...

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CHAPTER 2 - Know Thy Self; the African Union and the Need for African-Centred Education

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pp. 17-31

Education in Africa is faced with many challenges. According to UNESCO?s EFA Global Monitoring Reports, the main challenges include gender dispar-ity, low enrolment rates for primary education, high numbers of illiteracy, shortage of qualifi ed teachers, high drop-out rates and low teacher to stu-dent ratios.1 Further we know that African primary school enrolment and ...

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CHAPTER 3 - The African Union and the Democratic Project. Examining the Challenges for Task Accomplishment

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pp. 32-48

The establishment of the African Union (AU) in Durban in July 2002 was particularly geared towards transcending the weaknesses of its antecedent body ? the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).1 The character that the OAU assumed was very much infl uenced by the conjuncture of factors that pulled together to shape the immediate post-World War II era. In Africa this ...

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CHAPTER 4 - The Impact of Model ‘C’ Schooling on Africanisation of Potential African Intellectuals

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pp. 49-66

Since the end of apartheid, the people of South Africa have witnessed sig-nifi cant political, economic and educational development with far-reaching consequences for global order. For instance, since the apartheid era, South Africa has benefi ted from the triumph of globalisation, whereas African languages, the indigenous knowledge system and African culture have ...

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CHAPTER 5 - Elite Corruption and the Impact on African Economic Growth and Human Well-being

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pp. 67-81

Corruption is an insidious plague that has a wide range of corrosive effects on societies. It undermines democracy and the rule of law, leads to violations of human rights, distorts markets, erodes the quality of life and allows organ-ised crime, terrorism and other threats to human security to fl ourish.1 What makes corruption of serious concern is the fact that it is also practised by the ...

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CHAPTER 6 - Corruption and Poverty in Africa. Interrogating the Problematic of Reform Without Development in Nigeria

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pp. 82-102

Interrogating the Problematic of Reform Without Development in?NigeriaIt is no exaggeration that Nigeria in many respects has not fulfi lled its manifest mandate. Nigeria has become a dream betrayed. Rather than pro-vide continental and global leadership as a pace-setter exemplifying the unlimited possibilities for development of Africa and the African Diaspora, ...

PART II - Peace and Security Architecture and its Impact on Africa

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CHAPTER 7 - Panel of the Wise and the Future of Conflict Resolution in Africa

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pp. 105-117

The transition of the African continental body from the OAU to AU seems to have ushered in a new way of re-thinking the African situation, particu-larly the myriad of challenges confronting it, one of which, undoubtedly, is security. Indeed, for a long time, one major challenge confronting the African states has been the lack of effective mechanism to manage the ...

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CHAPTER 8 - Mashopeng Go a Boelwa Revisiting Our Past as Imperative to Humanising Law Enforcement in South Africa

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pp. 118-142

South Africa is an unequal and violent society where the police are some-times attacked by protesting masses. During the attacks, the police are faced with the dilemma of having to use force against the community and sometimes with fatal consequences. The August 2012 incident at the Marikana mine where 78 people were wounded in clashes that resulted in ...

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CHAPTER 9 - African Solutions to African Problems. The Fault line in Conflict Resolution in Africa

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pp. 143-155

For over a decade now, there has been an increase in calls, notably by African leaders, for ?African solutions to African problems?. This has come in the wake of increasing concerns over foreign meddling in the internal affairs specifi cally of economically viable African countries. This slogan has gained popularity across the continent and is permeating deep into the ...

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CHAPTER 10 - A Return of Hostilities? The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Future of a Two-State Sudan

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pp. 156-174

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Future of a Two-State SudanPost-independence South Sudan is perhaps lacking the enthusiasm of the referendum era, because the envisioned end of hostilities, eternal peace, transformational stability, political justice, economic prosperity and abso-lute control of resources has proven illusory. No doubt, this disappointment ...

PART III - Science, Technology and Innovation for Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance

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CHAPTER 11 - Africa and the Impending Nano-divide. An Overview on Temporal and Normative Perspectives

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pp. 177-200

In the same way as the respective ?divides? that previous technologies prompted, the ?nano-divide? is thought to be engendered by the disregard and violation of the demands of justice and its human rights standards. Nelson Mandela (1995) needed to reiterate this while entering his warning If more than half the world is denied access to the means of communication, ...

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CHAPTER 12 - Examining the Role of Women in Alleviating Poverty

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pp. 201-213

Poverty has been categorised into income poverty and human poverty (UNDP Poverty Report cited by Weisfeld-Adams and Andrzejewski, 2008).1 The UNDP Poverty Report further defi nes income poverty solely based on levels of monetary income and uses the criteria used by the World Bank which states that people living on less than US$1 per day are living in ...

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CHAPTER 13 - Renewable Energy and Development in Africa. Reflections on the role of the African Union

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pp. 214-231

Energy security is key to poverty reduction and the economic transformation of Africa. The continent is fi lled with energy security challenges; in particular access to energy, environmental concerns from the use of fossil fuels, and limited energy supply compounded with the volatile oil prices. Nonetheless, the continent is endowed with enormous renewable energy sources which ...

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CHAPTER 14 - The African Union’s Position on Organic Agriculture. What Are the Benefi ts of Governance at Continental Level?

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pp. 232-250

Organic Agriculture (OA) has grown in prominence as an alternative to conventional agriculture especially suitable for small holder farmers on the African continent. Many leaders of organic agricultural movements on the African continent are seen lobbying for the formalised recognition of organic farming in their countries through enactment of policies that ...

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CHAPTER 15 - Africa and the MDG on Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation. Case of Nigeria and Ghana

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pp. 251-272

According to the MDG target 7c, all countries are expected to ?halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to drinking water and basic sanitation?1,2. It is reported that all countries have made some form of commitment, either politically or fi nancially to the realisation of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for drinking water and ...

PART IV - Africa in the World Economy/Africa in the World Trading System

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CHAPTER 16 - Are Mineral Resources in Africa Enriching Africans? Trading with the World

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pp. 275-291

Geologically, Africa consists of Precambrian metamorphic and granitic rocks overlain in some areas by a thin cover of sedimentary rocks occupy-ing broad shallow basins. Several cratonic areas (large immobile areas of ancient age) on the continent are separated by major mobile belts (zones Some of the largest, and richest, mineral deposits in the world have ...

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CHAPTER 17 - Natural Resources for African Development under Sino-American Geo-strategic Rivalry

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pp. 292-314

The inability of most African countries to use the leverage of their natural resources to generate economic growth and decent living standards for their citizens has been a hotly debated issue in development economics for many decades. Most attempts to explain the paradoxical contrast between Africa?s prodigious mineral wealth and its dismal economic performance ...

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CHAPTER 18 - Financing the EU’s Economic Partnership Agreements in Africa. Implications of Alternative Funding Initiatives

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pp. 315-329

The Economic Partnership Agreement being negotiated between EU and its former colonies in the Africa, Caribbean and Pacifi c (ACP) is a continuation of the cooperation between the two parties that dates back to the Treaty of Rome of 1957 that established the European Economic Community.1 The cooperation between the EU and its former colonies has been characterised ...

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CHAPTER 19 - A ‘Wannabe Attitude’. Africa’s New Hurdle to its Transformation and Achieving the MDGs

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pp. 330-342

Africa?s New Hurdle to its Transformation and Achieving the MDGsIn an ever modernising and globalising world Africa, like any other con-tinent, cannot afford to lose her identity or to be left behind. Yet, as one travels across the continent of Africa, it is without any doubt that the continent is besieged with ?trans-oceanic? modernity and the pressure ...

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CHAPTER 20 - Pan-African Unity as a Pre-Requisite for Pro-Active Response to Climate Change

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pp. 343-363

The complexity and magnitude of climate change as portrayed these days by scientists and the media call for renewed thinking aimed at dealing with this threat from its root. A united pan-African front is needed. As a global dilemma, climate change entails anthropogenic activities in one area that directly or indirectly affect in remote places as well as regions, countries ...

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CHAPTER 21 - Humanity and the Environment in Africa. Environmentalism Before the Environmentalists

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pp. 364-382

The idea of environmentalism, often articulated in terms of sustainable development,1 has come into popular consciousness in recent decades as a consequence of the reckless abuse of the earth in the processes of advanc-ing the ?modern?, especially Western notions of development. It is normally expressed as a concern for the protection of the earth and its environment, ...

PART V - Politianism, Afro-Centricity, and the African Diaspora

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CHAPTER 22 - Decolonial Epistemic Perspective and Pan-African Unity in the 21st Century

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pp. 385-409

The main challenge facing the ex-colonised peoples is how to transcend the abyssal line which divided human population into zones of beings and zones of non-beings.1 Race was used as a central organising principle in this bifurcation process. The Euro-American world became the zone of beings, whereas areas outside this zone became an abode of non-beings. ...

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CHAPTER 23 - Fanonian Thought and Implications for Pan-African Unity

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pp. 410-423

This chapter seeks to situate Fanonian thought to understand the implica-tion of pan-African unity in so far as the post-colonial Africa is concerned. It is in post-colonial Africa where pan-African unity is seen as impractical. This is because pan-African unity has been and continues to be reduced to mere rhetoric in the geo-political location where borders, are the inheritance ...

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CHAPTER 24 - 21st Century Pan-Africanism. Legitimising the African Diaspora 6th Region

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pp. 424-443

The AEC (African Economic Community) and its two major corollaries, the African Union (AU) and the African Regional Economic Communities (RECs), have embarked on an enormous paradigm-altering mission for the 21st Century: the internal and external operational unity of Africa, and the transformation of that geo-physical territory into a world power with the ...

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CHAPTER 25 - Reframing Trans-Atlantic Slavery as Humanicide. Resolving Hidden Wounds and Prioritising a New Vision of African Humanity

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pp. 444-467

Three hours away from Johannesburg, in a remote area of South Africa?s Mpumalanga Province, a mixture of grassland and wetland environments, an amazing civilization existed ? 75,000 years before Portuguese adven-turers initiated the reprehensible international human commerce enter-prise along Africa?s Western shores. Over seven years, a team of South ...

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CHAPTER 26 - Breaking the Cycle of Colonialism and Dependency in Africa. The Role of the African Diaspora

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pp. 468-486

A century ago the renowned pan-Africanist Marcus Garvey declared: ?Wake up, Africa! Let us work toward the one glorious end of a free, and re-deemed mighty nation. Let Africa be a bright star among the constellation of nations?1 (Garvey, 1969). This was an appeal to Continental Africans and Africans in the Diaspora to develop strategies that would propel ...

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CHAPTER 27 - Making a Case for the Utilisation of African Diaspora in Promoting Economic Development of the Continent

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pp. 487-501

With almost one billion people and vast natural resources, Africa has tre-mendous opportunity to enhance its social, political, and economic devel-opment. Regrettably, these opportunities come with enormous challenges. Africa is the second largest continent and holds some of the world?s most valuable resources, yet Africa is responsible for only 2% of global trade1 and ...

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CHAPTER 28 - Beyond Self-Actualisation. Issues and Challenges Experienced by Young Africans Seeking Asylum in London and Building Resilience for a Way Forward

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pp. 502-516

Issues and Challenges Experienced by Young Africans Seeking?Asylum An asylum-seeker is a person who has crossed an international border in search of safety and applies to be given refugee status under the 1951 United Nations Convention which describes a refugee as someone who:Owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, ...

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CONCLUSION - Beyond State and Geography. Building the African Union with the African People to Realise the African Renaissance

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pp. 517-521

When something goes wrong in Somalia, the residents of Dead Man?s Creek, Mississippi, do not say ?Something has gone wrong in Somalia?, they say, ?None of (the states), if taken individually, would be able to effectively represent Africa or fully restore its people. Africa?s contribution to humanity requires all The borders drawn and left from the age of colonialism continue to gen-...

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ANNEX 1 - The Second Tshwane Declaration, 2012

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pp. 522-526

We, the over 100 researchers from various countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas, having met in Tshwane, South Africa over three days to commemorate Africa Liberation Day and exchanged on ten years of the African Union and the need to put Africa fi rst in order to promote the idea of putting humanity fi rst. The reason is that no people have been subjected to ...

Back Cover

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p. 527-527

E-ISBN-13: 9780798304054
Print-ISBN-13: 9780798303873

Page Count: 564
Publication Year: 2013