Israel and the Peace Process 1977-1982
In Search of Legitimacy for Peace
Publication Year: 1994
Published by: State University of New York Press
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In recent years I have focused my research interests on the ability of Israel and the Arab states to limit their conflict and especially their wars by unilateral or mutual willingness, or by external enforcement, rather than on their ability to terminate their conflict. My assumption has been that the Arab-Israeli...
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I am indebted to Professors Alexander L. George of Stanford University, Steven L. Spiegel of the University of California at Los Angeles, Yaacov Vertzberger of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Louis Kriesberg of Syracuse University, for their valuable comments and suggestions. I am also...
1. Peace and Legitimacy
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Significant change in the foreign policy arena of a given state is likely to be generated by crisis or war, which are generally radical and sudden situations that involve the highest of stakes and the very essence of a state's national interest. ...
2. Begin's Rise to Power
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Significant change in foreign policy may occur as a result of internal political change. The Israeli national election of May 17, 1977, known in Israel as the "turnabout" (mahapach), resulted in the most dramatic change in Israeli politics since the establishment of the state in 1948: namely, the rise to power...
3. Sadat's Initiative
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Anwar el-Sadat's announcement on November 9, 1977, at the Egyptian National Assembly indicating his willingness to go to Jerusalem and negotiate directly with the Israelis marked a significant change in Egypt's foreign policy. Sadat's dramatic initiative was aimed at challenging Israel's basic foreign policy...
4. Sadat's Visit to Israel
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Anwar el-Sadat's visit to Israel from November 19 to 21,1977, opened a new era in the Middle East and in the Arab-Israeli conflict. It indicated a dramatic and significant change in Egypt's foreign policy toward Israel. Suddenly, a shift from protracted hostility to a peaceful relationship between Egypt and...
5. Begin's Peace Plan
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President Anwar el-Sadat's visit to Israel was concluded with an informal and private agreement between him and Menachem Begin. The agreement was based on three principles: (I) an end to war between the two countries; (2) the formal restoration of sovereignty over the Sinai to Egypt; and (3) the demilitarization...
6. Reevaluation and Negative Legitimacy
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The failure of the Ismailia summit dampened Israeli hopes for concluding an immediate peace agreement with Egypt on the basis of the Israeli peace plan. The summit highlighted the gap between the two sides' positions: Sadat had offered Israel a full peace treaty only in return for total withdrawal from...
7. The Camp David Conference
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All that the Israeli delegation to the Camp David conference expected to occur there was the forging of a way to ensure the continuation of the negotiations, which would take place several months after the conference. They did not expect that Israel would have to make crucial decisions involving changes...
8.. Legitimacy for the Camp David Agreements
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Menachem Begin's signing of the Camp David accords on September 17, 1978, forced him to face, for the first time since the beginning of the peace process, his peace policy's serious problems of legitimacy. The accords constituted a serious deviation from not only Begin's own peace plan as he presented...
9. Crisis and Legitimacy
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The Knesset's overwhelming approval of the Camp David agreements authorized the Israeli government to undertake talks with Egypt and the United States aimed at reaching a peace treaty. However, the ambiguities in the Camp David accords that surfaced soon after the conference, together with both sides'...
10. Implementation and Legitimacy
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The study of shifting from war to peace and legitimacy does not end with the signing of a peace treaty, although an important part of the process is concluded. The stage of implementation is much more difficult, however, because it requires carrying out tangible concessions. The return of territory, evacuation...
11. Evacuation and Legitimacy
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The final stage of Israel's withdrawal from the Sinai, in April 1982, was the real test of the government's legitimacy with respect to the peace implementation. This was the most difficult part of the peace implementation because it involved the evacuation of Israeli settlements, twelve rural and two...
12. Empirical and Theoretical Conclusions
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This study examined the Israeli-Egyptian peacemaking from 1977 to 1982 as a significant change in Israel's foreign policy and domestic politics, and particularly the problems that Israeli decision makers faced in acquiring domestic legitimacy for shifting from war to peace. In this concluding chapter I...
Page Count: 338
Publication Year: 1994
Series Title: SUNY series in Israeli Studies
Series Editor Byline: Russell Stone