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Elections in Israel 1992, The

Asher Arian, Michal Shamir

Publication Year: 1995

As the momentum toward peace in the Middle East surges and wanes, the intensity of politics in Israel takes on added relevance. There can be little doubt that the historic Israel-PLO peace accord could not have occurred were it not for the turnabout elections of 1992. This volume, the seventh in a series begun in 1969, carries on the tradition of offering in-depth analyses of the major issues, actors, and parties involved in Israeli politics. Leading social scientists from Israeli and North American universities and research institutes, using different methods and coming from diverse intellectual traditions, address questions such as whether the elections were a referendum on the return of the Territories; what roles the PLO and the United States played in the election results; how technological changes in political communications, packaging of candidates, and opinion polls affected the results; what contributions such groups as women, Arabs, and members of various religions made to the change in government; and whether the political reforms instituted before the elections resulted from changes in the mood of the electorate or brought about changes in Israel’s policy. Contributors to the volume include Majid Al-Haj, Gideon Doron, Aaron Fein, Hillel Frisch, Tamar Hermann, Hanna Herzog, Barry Kay, Jonathan Mendilow, Barry Rubin, Ron Shachar, Gabriel Weimann, Aaron Willis, Gadi Wolfsfeld, and Yael Yishai.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Copyright

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List of Tables

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

The 1992 elections have been widely seen as ushering in a new era in Israeli politics, and in many senses that depiction is accurate. Fifteen years after the defeat of 1977, and eight years after the stalemate of 1984, Labor returned to power in a dramatic manner. It was no longer necessary to share power with the Likud, as had happened after the 1984 and 1988 elections. Yitzhak Rabin returned to the prime ministry...

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CHAPTER 1. Two Reversals: Why 1992 Was Not 1977

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pp. 17-54

Israeli voters have only twice changed the party in power at the polls, once in 1977 and again in 1992. The first time, the dominant Labor Party lost power to the Likud as Labor hemorrhaged from self-inflicted wounds and lost votes to the reformist Democratic Movement for Change, on the one hand, and to the Likud, on the other.1,,,

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CHAPTER 2. Modelling Victory in the 1992 Election

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pp. 55-80

When do parties win and when do they lose? No questions are more important to the practitioner and student of politics. It is clear from the vast literature on the subject that the major components of the answer and their relative importance vary across elections and that the issues are multifaceted. Take, for example, performance evaluations...

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CHAPTER 3. Penetrating the System: The Politics of Collective Identities

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pp. 81-102

This chapter deals with parties based on collective identity: religious, ethnic, Arab, and women's parties. Collective identity has the potential to be an efficient and thrifty resource for political mobilization and organization, all the more so when social affiliation is a major cause for social interests and/or social deprivation in a given society...

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CHAPTER 4. Equal But Different? The Gender Gap in Israel's 1992 Elections

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pp. 103-120

During the 1992 electoral campaign the Israeli public has witnessed a growing concern with the role of women in the choice of national leadership. As the proportion of women representatives in the Knesset has ranged between 6.6 percent and 10 percent, it has been widely proclaimed that women should figure more prominently on partisan lists and should be more amply represented on the decision making level...

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CHAPTER 5. Shas-The Sephardic Torah Guardians: Religious "Movement" and Political Power

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pp. 121-140

June 21, 1992. Scene: "Solemn Assembly" in Jerusalem. The various speakers, musicians, and honored rabbis are shuttled in and out. Assistants on stage maintain telephone contact with the speakers and performers, coordinating their movement between assemblies...

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CHAPTER 6. The Political Behavior of the Arabs in Israel in the 1992 Elections: Integration versus Segregation

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pp. 141-172

Prior to the first Knesset elections in 1949, Israeli policy makers had a dispute regarding the granting of Arab citizens the right to vote (Benziman and Mansour 1992, 201). Palmon, the prime minister's advisor for Arab affairs at that time, argued that granting Arabs the right to vote would serve as a catalyst driving them to question the Jewish...

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CHAPTER 7. Voting Trends of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

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pp. 173-176

Interest in the political positions of immigrants to Israel from the republics of the former Soviet Union began during 1990 when it became clear that the number of such immigrants was growing from month to month and that their percentage of the voting public in Israel was becoming most significant. This attention reached a high level after what was an average yearly immigration of some fifteen thousand in the early 1980s rose...

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CHAPTER 8. The PLO and the 1992 Elections: A Skillful Participant?

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pp. 177-192

For the PLO, beset by internecine strife in the territories and the Likud's second mass settlement drive, the 1992 election campaign represented one ray of hope. Large-scale settlement confirmed the view prevalent in the PLO since 1984 that a government monopolized by the Likud presented the worst scenario for Palestinians. Fortunately for the PLO, factionalism within the Likud revolving around a Sepharadi leader...

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CHAPTER 9. U.S.-Israel Relations and Israel's 1992 Elections

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pp. 193-218

U.S. policy has an important effect on Israel's internal and electoral politics. At the time of Israel 1992 elections, the open hostility of President George Bush's administration toward Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir's government surely influenced the behavior of Israeli politicians and voters....

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CHAPTER 10. The 1992 Campaign: Valence and Position Dimensions

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pp. 219-234

Critics have pointed to a disparity between the issues on which the 1992 electoral campaign turned and the consequences of the election itself. The Hebrew term Mahapach (upheaval) is popularly used to denote the far-reaching shifts in style, ideology, and policies of the new government, especially as regards the Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab conflicts. The campaign, by contrast, had focused chiefly on leadership...

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CHAPTER 11. Voters as Consumers: Audience Perspectives on the Election Broadcasts

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pp. 235-254

Televised advertisements have become a central component of the Israeli election campaign in recent years. Millions of shekels are poured into the production of these commercials, and their content and tone have an important impact on the pace and agenda of the election campaign...

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CHAPTER 12. Caveat Populi Quaestor: The 1992 Preelections Polls in the Israeli Press

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pp. 255-274

Three heated and close campaigns were conducted during 1992: British, American, and Israeli elections were all held within a period of six months (April to November 1992). All three campaigns attracted worldwide attention and massive media coverage...

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CHAPTER 13. The Rise of Instrumental Voting: The Campaign for Political Reform

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pp. 275-310

The unprecedented electoral victOlY of tlIe Likud in 1977 seemed at tlle time to have marked a crucial turning point in Israeli politics, first and foremost as it put an end to the Labor party's prolonged domination in the national political arena. Its significance seemed even greater in the light of the prevalent interpretation of this electoral shift as an outcome...

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CHAPTER 14. Reforming Israel's Voting Schemes

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pp. 311-320

Electoral rules are mathematical schemes that aggregate individual preferences and produce collective choices. A change in the definition of the scheme results, of course, in the production of different outcomes. When election outcomes do not favor some political players, or when individuals or groups believe that an alteration in the prevailing method may yield desired results from their perspective...

Index

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pp. 321-326


E-ISBN-13: 9780791495216
E-ISBN-10: 0791495213
Print-ISBN-13: 9780791421758
Print-ISBN-10: 0791421759

Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 1995

Series Title: SUNY series in Israeli Studies
Series Editor Byline: Russell Stone