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Dialogue, Conflict Resolution, and Change

Arab-Jewish Encounters in Israel

Mohammed Abu-Nimer

Publication Year: 1999

Explores Arab-Jewish encounters and relations in Israel from both conflict resolution and educational perspectives. This is the first study to introduce the subject of Arab-Jewish relations and encounters in Israel from both conflict resolution and educational perspectives. Through a critical examination of Arab and Jewish encounter programs in Israel, the book reviews conflict resolution and intergroup theories and processes which are utilized in dealing with ethnic conflicts and offers a detailed presentation of intervention models applied by various encounter programs to promote dialogue, education for peace, and democracy between Arabs and Jews in Israel. The author investigates how encounter designs and processes can become part of a control system used by the dominant governmental majority’s institutes to maintain the status quo and reinforce political taboos. Also discussed are the different conflict perceptions held by Arabs and Jews, the relationship between those perceptions, and both sides’ expectations of the encounters. Abu-Nimer explores the impact of the political context (Intifada, Gulf War, and peace process) on the intervention design and process of those encounter groups, and contains a list of recommendations and guidelines to consider when designing and conducting encounters between ethnic groups. He reveals and explains why the Arab and Jewish encounter participants and leaders have different criteria of their encounter’s success and failure. The study is also applicable to dialogue and coexistence programs and conflict resolution initiatives in other ethnically divided societies, such as South Africa, Northern Ireland, Bosnia, and Sri Lanka, where the minority and majority have struggled to find peaceful ways to coexist.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Front matter

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Contents

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pp. vii-ix

Figures

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pp. xi-

Tables

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pp. xiii-

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

This book could not have been completed without the cooperation, willingness, and openness of the directors, facilitators, and participants of the various Arab-Jewish groups and organizations who agreed to be part of this project. I certainly hope that this research contributes to their efforts in bringing Arabs and Jews together. I am also thankful for all the Arab and Jewish politicians and community leaders who granted me their precious...

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Introduction

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pp. xvii-xxi

Attempts to establish dialogue and communication between conflicting parties are usually welcomed regardless of their content, structure, motivation, or outcome. Those who oppose these attempts are usually labeled "radicals" or "fanatics." Nevertheless, the assumption of this study is that there should be no immediate, naive acceptance or warm welcome of...

Abbreviations

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pp. xxiii-

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CHAPTER 1. INTERGROUP RELATIONS APPROACH

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pp. 1-9

Contact hypothesis theory is a central part of theories of intergroup relations. Generally, the contact hypothesis theoretical propositions are used to explain prejudice reduction and discrimination in intergroup situations, which are subcategories of the larger arena of intergroup relations....

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CHAPTER 2. CONFLICT RESOLUTION PRINCIPLES IN INTERGROUP CONFLICTS: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO CONTACT HYPOTHESIS

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pp. 11-28

In classifying the substantial amount of research on intergroup contact, Amir (1976:92) argued that "The theoretical understanding of intergroup contact processes and contact as a potential for change is very limited." The same case can be drawn in classifying conflict resolution theories, or more accurately, the theoretical propositions made by scholars in this emerging field. In addition, there are uncertain and different answers to the...

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CHAPTER 3. ARAB-JEWISH CONFLICT IN ISRAEL: HISTORICAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL BACKGROUND

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pp. 29-36

With the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948, a minority of 156,000 Palestinians of an estimated 1.5 million remained under the authority of the newly established Jewish state. This resulted in a sudden shift in the status of this small Palestinian community from being members of an Arab majority to being a minority. There are 700,000 Arabs in Israel and they...

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CHAPTER 4. THE ARAB-JEWISH COEXISTENCE PROGRAMS

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pp. 37-54

In the main communique (Hozer Mankal) that instructs schools on educational policy regarding political and social issues, the Arab-Jewish relation issue was mentioned only twice between 1961 and 1976 (Mahameed & Gootman, 1983). This indicates the importance of this issue to the Israeli governmental offices until the rise of Khana's antidemocratic movement,...

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CHAPTER 5. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND THE ARAB-JEWISH PROGRAMS

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pp. 55-61

There is a pressing need to examine more than one or two case studies that focus on the relationship and process of interaction rather than on quantifying changes at the individual level only, which causes the loss of impact of the context as well as important insights and nuances. Therefore, this research is designed to explore the meaning and influence of context...

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CHAPTER 6. THE ENCOUNTER PROGRAMS' DESIGNS: COMPONENTS OF THE INTERVENTION MODELS

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pp. 63-97

Arab-Jewish programs, as any other intervention models, have certain characteristics that describe the essential components of the intervention. (1) Participants are the beneficiaries of the program. (2) Assumptions underlie each program of intervention. (3) Goals of the programs are perceived by beneficiaries and intervenors. (4) The structure of the framework contains...

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CHAPTER 7. PERCEPTIONS OF THE ARAB-JEWISH CONFLICT IN ISRAEL

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pp. 99-113

Arab-Jewish programs, as any other intervention models, have certain characteristics that describe the essential components of the intervention. (1) Participants are the beneficiaries of the program. (2) Assumptions underlie each program of intervention. (3) Goals of the programs are perceived by beneficiaries and intervenors. (4) The structure of the framework contains...

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CHAPTER 8. PERCEPTION OF SUCCESS AND IMPACTS OF THE ENCOUNTER MODELS

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pp. 115-130

In an attempt to examine their macro perspectives, intervenors had difficulties responding when asked: What is success? Some began by listing ways in which they felt the encounter had been successful; others admitted that they had not thought about this issue before. Such confusion was not correlated with the interviewee's program affiliation, nationality, or professional...

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CHAPTER 9. IMPACTS OF THE POLITICAL CONTEXT ON THE ENCOUNTER MODELS

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pp. 131-148

The lack of consideration of the impacts of context, particularly the political, on the intervention model has been one major shortcoming of the contact hypothesis model (Hewstone 8c Brown, 1 9 8 6 ) . Therefore, the primary objective of this chapter is to examine impacts of the political context on Arab-Jewish intervention models. Of the rapid changing Middle...

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CHAPTER 10. ARAB-JEWISH ENCOUNTER PROGRAMS: POLITICAL CHANGE OR CONTROL?

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pp. 149-167

Arab-Jewish encounter programs have been developing since the mid- 1950s. Therefore, a comprehensive consideration of the contribution of Arab-Jewish encounter programs to the political and social processes of change and control in Israel requires, in addition to the discussion of...

Appendix 1. Participants and the Intifada's Impacts

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pp. 169-170

Appendix 2. Participants and the Gulf War's Impacts

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pp. 171-172

Appendix 3. Examples of Success in Arab-Jewish Intervention

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pp. 173-174

Notes

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pp. 175-180

Bibliography

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pp. 181-193

Index

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pp. 195-199


E-ISBN-13: 9780791494196
E-ISBN-10: 0791494195
Print-ISBN-13: 9780791441534
Print-ISBN-10: 0791441539

Page Count: 199
Publication Year: 1999

Series Title: SUNY series in Israeli Studies
Series Editor Byline: Russell Stone