Increasing Access to College
Extending Possibilities for All Students
Publication Year: 2002
Published by: State University of New York Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
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Introduction [INCLUDES APPENDICES]
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Education has long been called “the great equalizer.” We are well aware that the delivery of quality elementary and secondary education combined with college access in ways that are blind to student ethnicity and income status will not only benefit the students themselves, but will also benefit society in general. Yet intuitive awareness has not given birth to programs...
PART I: The Landscape of College Access
1. Pre-College Outreach Programs: A National Perspective
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As the other chapters in this volume attest, despite dramatic increases in postsecondary enrollments at American colleges and universities gaps still exist in who goes to college and who ultimately succeeds. Low-income, African American, Hispanic, and Native American populations continue to be underrepresented at institutions of higher education relative to their representation...
2. The Relationship between Urbanicity and Educational Outcomes
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This chapter will provide a targeted portrait of disadvantaged students, whose educational fates can be affected by pre-collegiate outreach programs. The chapter offers some speculations and cautions on program practice and evaluation based on the three degrees of urbanicity (urban, suburban, and rural) within the nine geographic divisions used by the Census.1 The chapter...
3. A Theoretical and Practical View of Student Adjustment and Academic Achievement
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As we now enter the twenty-first century, access to college and to high-level jobs for at-risk groups of students in both urban and suburban areas remains one of the most critical issues facing the nation. In fact, the question of access—who gets into college and who is eligible to fill high-level jobs in a highly competitive job market that rewards the best prepared individuals...
PART II: The Real World of College Preparation Programs
4. Meeting Common Goals: Linking K–12 and College Interventions
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For the last several decades there has been widespread consensus that something is wrong with the pipeline that leads to and through higher education for minority students. Nationwide, 93.6 percent of caucasian students in the 25–29-year-old category had received a high school diploma or GED certificate in 1998. However, this figure was only 88.2 percent for African...
5. The Social Construction of College Access: Confronting the Technical, Cultural, and Political Barriers to Low-Income Students of Color
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When Californians outlawed affirmative action, the University of California (UC) system launched an “Outreach” initiative aimed at creating a diverse pool of high school graduates who are eligible and competitive for the university in a race-neutral admissions environment. A blue ribbon Task Force outlined a four-pronged approach focused on schools in low-income neighborhoods with a history of sending few students to UC. The approach...
6. (In)(Di)Visible Identities of Youth: College Preparation Programs from a Feminist Standpoint
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Maria, a senior who attends Westin High School in Bronx, NY, immigrated to the United States five years ago from the Dominican Republic. Maria is one of five children in her family—she has an older brother who graduated from a local community college and entered a four-year city college in criminal justice this past year, an older sister who is married and...
7. Partners for Preparation: Redistributing Social and Cultural Capital
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In this chapter, we describe efforts at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) that engage local elementary and secondary schools in underrepresented communities in collaborative partnerships. The goal of these partnerships is to increase the number of underrepresented students eligible for university admission and, more broadly, to increase the range of opportunities...
PART III: Suggestions and Policy for the Future
8. Making School to College Programs Work: Academics, Goals, and Aspirations
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As many of the other chapters have indicated, despite the existence of special programs designed to assist urban, rural, and minority youth from low-income areas to attain college degrees and subsequent occupational success, the stark reality remains—only a small number will earn a bachelor’s degree or beyond (U.S. Department of Education, 2000; Levine & Nidiffer,...
9 Parental Guidance Suggested: Family Involvement in College Preparation Programs
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Many popular magazines and periodicals offer advice to parents about their children’s education: Success, they suggest, depends upon parent involvement at all educational levels. These popular sentiments are echoed in the research journals and other academic literature, and in some instances, are underscored in federally funded programs. While few dispute the notion that children are influenced...
10. Reflective Evaluation: Improving Practice in College Preparation Programs
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Throughout this book we have argued that college preparation programs, otherwise known as “enhancement programs,” have taken on increased national importance for a variety of reasons. As Yonezawa and her colleagues pointed out, in California, the elimination of affirmative action led to a precipitous drop in minority student enrollment to the University of California system; policy makers wondered what other actions...
About the Contributors
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SUNY series, Frontiers in Education
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Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2002
Series Title: SUNY series, Frontiers in Education
Series Editor Byline: Philip G. Altbach