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Contexts of Juvenile Justice Decision Making, The

When Race Matters

Michael J. Leiber

Publication Year: 2003

An in-depth examination of the contextual nature of decision making and the causes of disproportionate minority confinement in four relatively homogenous juvenile courts in Iowa, this book explores the subjective social psychological processes of juvenile court officers and the factors that influence those processes. Iowa, although a state with a predominantly white population, has one of the highest minority incarceration rates for juveniles. Michael J. Leiber focuses on the relationships between adherence to correctional orientations (such as retribution and rehabilitation) and decision-makers’ views concerning race, crime, family, and respect for authority with judgments and differential outcomes for youth. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are used to determine the extent to which correctional ideologies and decision-makers’ stereotyping of minorities are fueled by a wide range of contingencies, the impact of case processing and outcomes of whites, African Americans, and Native Americans, and how it varies by jurisdiction.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-

Foreword

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pp. vii-ix

Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

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Chapter 1 Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC)

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pp. 1-9

"This book is based on the view that the effects of race on justice system decision making are variable—dependent on time, macrosocial factors (e.g., racial composition of communities), the characteristics of the court in question (e.g., degree of bureaucratization), and the presence and extent of racial stereotyping. The few quantitative contextual studies of juvenile justice decision making have emphasized..."

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Chapter 2 Understanding DMC

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pp. 11-26

"The following pages present a review of two initial assessment studies and additional research conducted by the author to determine the causes of disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) in Iowa. The more recent research relied upon a contextual framework that emphasized the structural characteristics of communities and, to a lesser extent, the organizational features of..."

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Chapter 3 Correctional Orientations, Race, Crime, Family, and Respect for Authority

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pp. 27-43

"Despite differences in theory and/or the sources for the increased social control of youth, a common theme within contextual analyses pertinent to this study is how decision-makers perceive minorities. Prior contextual frameworks place an emphasis, explicitly or implicitly, on the social interactions between..."

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Chapter 4 Methods

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pp. 45-58

"The present research examines the extent adherence to a dominant correctional orientation(s) and perceptions of minorities as criminal, coming from dysfunctional families, and lacking respect for authority by decision-makers influence decision making and vary by juvenile court. The examination of these socialpsychological processes should broaden our understanding of the contexts of..."

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Chapter 5 Movement through the Juvenile Justice System

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pp. 59-72

"This chapter examines decision making in each jurisdiction to assess the movement of youth from referral at intake to a dispositional outcome involving a change of placement or transfer to adult court. There are two objectives in tracing this movement through the proceedings. The first is to treat juvenile justice decision making as a process that spans multiple stages. Researchers generally..."

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Chapter 6 The Influence of Legal and Extralegal Factors on Decision Making

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pp. 73-90

"In this chapter, a summary of the results from the examination of the race associations with each decision-making stage for each jurisdiction is presented. Next, the discussion centers on the findings from the multivariate analysis in the form of logistic regression to determine if the bivariate relationships..."

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Chapter 7 Accountability and Intervention

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pp. 91-103

"Decision making in Bond is more closely examined through the use of data gathered from interviews with nineteen decision-makers. Fifteen juvenile court officers, a judge, two public defenders, and a prosecutor were interviewed. Twelve of the respondents are male and, with the exception of two African Americans, all are white. The mean age is thirty-eight. The mean length of..."

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Chapter 8 Rehabilitation, Protection of Society, and Adherence to Middle-Class Values

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pp. 105-119

"In Jackson, 23 adult juvenile court decision-makers were interviewed and consisted of juvenile court officers (n  16), judges (n  2), public defenders (n  2), and prosecutors (n  3). None of the decision-makers are minority; seven are female. The mean age of the personnel is 40. On average, they had worked for this juvenile court for eight years. Furthermore, a large percentage..."

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Chapter 9 Formal Rationalized Justice and Nonintervention

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pp. 121-132

"Twenty-two juvenile court probation officers, 2 judges, 2 prosecutors, and 2 public defenders were interviewed in King. Of the 28 decision-makers, 19 are male, and 2 are African American. The mean age of the respondents is 42, and the average length of time on the job is ten years. King has the following characteristics:"

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Chapter 10 Dysfunctional Family, Subcultural Values, Lack of Resources, and Rehabilitation

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pp. 133-145

"Twelve juvenile court officers, 1 judge, and 1 referee were interviewed in the jurisdiction of Parks. Of the 14 respondents, 7 are male. All of the subjects are white. The mean age of the personnel is 41 and the average length of time on the job is 12 years. The structural characteristics of the community, the organizational features of the juvenile court, and the results from the quantitative..."

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Chapter 11 Summary and Conclusions

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pp. 147-171

"Efforts have recently begun to refine theory and to conduct studies of court processing by paying greater attention to the conditions and circumstances when race matters. The search for the contexts of decision making has resulted in an emphasis on the structural and/or the organizational characteristics of communities and courts (e.g., Ulmer, 1997; Crawford et al., 1998) and..."

Appendixes

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pp. 173-185

Notes

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pp. 187-195

Bibliography

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pp. 197-220

Index

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pp. 221-225


E-ISBN-13: 9780791486634
Print-ISBN-13: 9780791457672
Print-ISBN-10: 0791457672

Page Count: 226
Illustrations: 27 tables, 3 figures
Publication Year: 2003

Research Areas

Recommend

Subject Headings

  • Juvenile delinquents -- Iowa.
  • Prison sentences -- Iowa.
  • Juvenile corrections -- Iowa.
  • Discrimination in criminal justice administration -- Iowa.
  • Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Iowa.
  • Discrimination in juvenile justice administration -- Iowa.
  • Minority youth -- Iowa.
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