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Politics of Turkish Democracy, The

Ismet Inonu and the Formation of the Multi-Party System, 1938-1950

John M. VanderLippe

Publication Year: 2005

One of the most significant yet least known periods of modern Turkish history is that of Turkey’s second president, Iùsmet Iùnönü. Following the death of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1938, Turkish politicians and intellectuals struggled to redefine Kemalist notions of modernity and democracy, Islam and secularization, the role of the state, and Turkey’s place in the world. The Politics of Turkish Democracy examines Iùnönü’s presidency (1938–1950), which developed amid the crises of World War II and the Cold War, global economic and political transformation, and economic and social change within Turkey. John M. VanderLippe analyzes the political discourse of the era and argues that Iùnönü was a pivotal figure who played the decisive role in Turkey’s transition to a multi-party political system.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-

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Introduction: İsmet İnönü and Multi-Party Politics in Turkish History

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pp. 1-6

The presidency of İsmet İnönü, 1938–50, developed amid the crises of World War II and the Cold War, global economic and political transformation, and economic and social change within Turkey. Since the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the scope of political debate had been narrowly defined and participation in the political arena restricted to a...

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Chapter One: Political Discourse and Reform in Turkey

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pp. 7-25

The political discourse of the period 1938–50 developed in continuity with the political discourse of the Ottoman period, which was carried forward by the National Struggle into the Turkish Republic. Four main issues remained salient from the late Ottoman Empire through this period: defining and achieving development and progress; expanding or limiting...

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Chapter Two: The Election of İsmet İnönü as President: Kemalist Hegemony and Alternative Definitions

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pp. 27-53

In November 1938, Turkey’s long-standing President, Mustafa Kemal considerable domestic and international tension, and confronted not only the problem of defining his own roles, as President and leader of the People’s Party, but also the problem of dealing with Atatürk and his legacy. ...

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Chapter Three: War at Home, War Abroad: New Terms of Domination

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pp. 55-75

In a world dominated by powerful states, to what extent can a less powerful state determine its own terms of participation in war? If it wants to remain at peace, but still confronts the belief in the rationality of conflict,what is the impact of its non-belligerency on its foreign and domestic relations? ...

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Chapter Four: New Alliances and Demands for Change

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pp. 77-96

By the end of 1942, the Turkish economy was showing the strains of the war. Mobilization, disruption of foreign trade and investment, shortages, a sharp expansion of the black market, and resentment toward war profiteers raised new demands on the state. As popular discontent spread, the government responded through policies meant to assert greater control over the...

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Chapter Five: The Emergence of Organized Opposition

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pp. 97-112

The early years of the war brought Turkey economic dislocation, popular discontent, and tension in foreign relations. The state responded to the demands of the domestic and international situation by increasing control of the economy, and by imposing restrictions on free speech, political expression, and movement, with the justification that duty, responsibility, sacrifice, ...

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Chapter Six: Post-War International Tensions, and the Expression of Opposition

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pp. 113-136

On May 19, 1945, during his address on the national day celebrating Turkish youths. İsmet İnönü announced his vision of the future: ...

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Chapter Seven: The Emergence of the Democrat Party: The Challenge, and Limits, of Organized Opposition

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pp. 137-159

In the period from late 1945 into 1947 the possibilities as well as limits of a multi-party system in Turkey were defined by the opening and organization of a number of new political parties, representing perspectives across the spectrum, from socialist to religious. ...

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Chapter Eight: The Confines of the Cold War and the Redefinition of Kemalism

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pp. 161-187

For Turkey the period from the end of World War II until July 1947 was a time of realignment in foreign and domestic affairs. The post-war competition between the United States and the Soviet Union forced Turkish leaders to reevaluate the policy of caution, balance, and autonomy pursued during World War II. ...

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Chapter Nine: Multi-Party Politics and the Defeat of Democracy

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pp. 189-209

The general election of May 1950 was a turning point in Turkish history, in the sense that after twenty-seven years of uncontested power, the People’s Party handed power to another party, and took on the uncomfortable role of opposition party. İsmet İnönü saw the defeat of the People’s Party as proof of the success of the post-war multi-party experiment, ...

Endnotes

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pp. 211-244

Bibliography

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pp. 245-264

Index

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pp. 265-271


E-ISBN-13: 9780791483374
Print-ISBN-13: 9780791464359
Print-ISBN-10: 0791464350

Page Count: 282
Illustrations: 2 tables
Publication Year: 2005