Desegregating the City
Ghettos, Enclaves, and Inequality
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: State University of New York Press
Desegregating the City: Ghettos, Enclaves, and Inequality
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There is an impressive body of scholarship produced by economists, sociologists, historians, and city planners on the problems of America’s ghettos. Highlights of that scholarship include (1) the continuing high levels of racial and income segregation and the concentration of the poor in a relatively small number of high-poverty areas; (2) the root causes of...
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I would like to express my thanks to Roz Greenstein of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, for making the seminar, “Segregation in the City”(Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 25–28, 2001) possible and for initially funding a book based on the seminar; to Xavier de Souza Briggs for offering encouragement and advice (including the title for this book); to Peter...
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The book is divided into two parts. The six chapters in part I attempt to answer questions specific to enclaves: How do the ethnic enclaves emerging in North American cities today differ from the enclaves occupied by Eastern and Southern European immigrants earlier in the twentieth century? What are the functional and dysfunctional aspects of current...
Part I. Defining Segregation and Its Consequences
1. ENCLAVES YES, GHETTOS NO: Segregation and the State
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Spatial clustering seems to be an inevitable accompaniment of urban life. Spatial processes have resulted in many forms of clustering (ghettos, gated communities, ethnic enclaves, religious communities, developments for the elderly), but the dividing line between those clusters that are of public concern and those of no public policy interest is not always clear....
2. THE GHETTO AND THE ETHNIC ENCLAVE
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This chapter is a piece of intellectual archaeology, but it has a potent message for our current understanding of segregation. The key point is that there is a major difference between the ghetto and the ethnic enclave. American sociology for a long time failed to make this distinction and worse still, linked the ghetto, enclave, and suburb as three spatial stages...
3. ETHNIC SEGREGATION IN A MULTICULTURAL CITY
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Segregation is a word soaked in the history of racial discrimination and colonialism. The word conjures up images of African townships, black ghettos, and native reservations contrasted with colonialist estates, white suburbs, and exclusivist neighborhoods. These places represent not only residential separation by race, color, religion, and/or class, but also a...
4. URBAN ETHNIC SEGREGATION AND THE SCENARIOS SPECTRUM
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I think it is appropriate to start by quoting the distinguished New En-gland poet, Robert Frost (2002). In one of his best-known pieces, "Mending Wall," he writes:..
5. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SEGREGATION IN THE UNITED STATES
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The now ubiquitous concept of social capital—in essence, the resources stored in social connections—sheds light on both the causes and consequences of segregation in the United States. Social capital also highlights some critical but often overlooked dimensions of the most common efforts to undo segregation or mitigate its effects, that is, to reduce various...
6. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF RAPID URBAN SPATIAL SEGREGATION: The New Towns of Tegucigalpa
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In Tegucigalpa, a quintessential case of urban spatial segregation, with its inherent positive and negative consequences, is currently underway. As noted in the operational definition suggested below, spatial segregation in this context focuses on accessibility to services. In the present case, thousands of families displaced by Hurricane Mitch, which devastated the...
Part II. Housing Markets, Public Policies, and Land Use
7. EXPERIENCING RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION A: Contemporary Study of Washington, D.C.
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Racial segregation is as taken for granted as any feature of urban life in the United States. Whites, on average, live in neighborhoods that are nearly 83 percent white, Blacks live in neighborhoods that are 56 percent black, while Hispanics, on average, reside in communities that are 42 percent Hispanic (Lewis Mumford Center 2001a). The fact of...
8. INEQUALITY, SEGREGATION, AND HOUSING MARKETS: The U.S. Case
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One of the most fruitful ways of dealing with the topic of segregation is through the detour of the analysis of inequality, for segregation is generally understood in the policy debate as nothing else but a spatialization of power differentials between social groups or classes. We are usually...
9. AN ECONOMIC VIEW OF THE CAUSES AS WELL AS THE COSTS AND SOME OF THE BENEFITS OF URBAN SPATIAL SEGREGATION
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Spatial segregation by income, class, race, and ethnicity exists in urban areas throughout the United States and the world. Such segregation occurs across local governmental jurisdictions and neighborhoods in metropolitan areas. Spatial segregation, therefore, is a public policy concern because of the severe limitations it places on quality of life and upward...
10. DOES DENSITY EXACERBATE INCOME SEGREGATION? EVIDENCE FROM U.S. METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1980–1990
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In recent years, urban sprawl has captured increased attention and calls for new policy interventions. By many definitions, sprawl has been shown fairly consistently to degrade wildlife habitat, threaten agricultural productivity, and raise the cost of public services at all levels of government(Alberti 1999; Ewing 1997). The magnitude of these costs, and whether...
11. SPRAWL AND SEGREGATION: Another Side of the Los Angeles Debate
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If Atlanta is the poster child for urban sprawl, Los Angeles is the most controversial example. Proponents of the compact city and new urbanism consider Los Angeles the epitome of sprawl, of unplanned, unchecked, profligate, profit-driven urban growth (Calthorpe 1993, 142–168; 2000). Historians see the influence of planners in the dispersed and...
12. HOUSING SUBSIDIES AND URBAN SEGREGATION: A Reflection on the Case of South Africa
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Sociopolitical exclusion in South Africa for most of the twentieth century was distinguished by its racial segregation and the rigorous means by which it was legislated and controlled by the state. The legal framework encompassed racial restrictions on political activity, employment, commercial and investment opportunities, social relations, and spatially, on...
13. SUBURBS AND SEGREGATION IN SOUTH AFRICAN CITIES: A Challenge for Metropolitan Governance in the Early Twenty-First Century
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The rise of the suburbs, chronicled most extensively in the United States, has long ceased to be a matter of the residential structure of the city. Well within the twentieth century, it left behind the commercial change that inevitably follows residents with money to spend, to become a question of new structures of work, of society, and of...
14. CONCLUSION: Desegregating the City
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We live in a world more concerned about some inequalities than others. Naturally, these concerns are in part a function of differential awareness. But they also reflect competing priorities and deeply rooted disagreements—first, about what public values should guide market-driven economies, particularly in democratic societies, and second, based on those...
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Page Count: 332
Illustrations: 5 tables, 1 figure
Publication Year: 2005