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The China Challenge

Sino-Canadian Relations in the 21st Century

Edited by Huhua Cao and Vivienne Poy

Publication Year: 2011

With the exception of Canada’s relationship with the United States, Canada’s relationship with China will likely be its most significant foreign connection in the twenty-first century. As China’s role in world politics becomes more central, understanding China becomes essential for Canadian policymakers and policy analysts in a variety of areas. Responding to this need, The China Challenge brings together perspectives from both Chinese and Canadian experts on the evolving Sino-Canadian relationship. It traces the history and looks into the future of Canada-China bilateral relations. It also examines how China has affected a number of Canadian foreign and domestic policy issues, including education, economics, immigration, labour and language.

Recently, Canada-China relations have suffered from inadequate policymaking and misunderstandings on the part of both governments. Establishing a good dialogue with China must be a Canadian priority in order to build and maintain mutually beneficial relations with this emerging power, which will last into the future.

Published by: University of Ottawa Press


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pp. vii-viii

List of Tables, Figures and Maps

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pp. x-xiv

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pp. xv-xvi

It has been more than forty years since diplomatic relations between Canada and the People’s Republic of China were established by Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Th roughout that time, China has undergone dramatic economic changes, and the country is now considered a key player on the global stage. China’s emergence as an economic powerhouse, coupled with its...

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Chapter 1: Introduction: Canada’s Response to China’s Increasing Role in the World

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pp. 1-10

The international position of the People’s Republic of China has undeniably changed since Canada became one of the first developed countries to recognize it, in 1970 (even before the People’s Republic was admitted to the United Nations). When Mao Zedong declared on October 1, 1949, that China had finally “stood up” in the world, he had...

Evolution of Canada-China Relations

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Chapter 2: Canada’s Staying Power: A Diplomat’s View

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pp. 12-31

It is a particularly unrewarding task to try to find patterns in Canada’s relations with China. To maintain that they evolve through a sort of subconscious thread leading from discovery to mutual exploitation, through disappointment, before eventually attaining a level of “maturity,” results in nothing more than an academic exercise for ordering ephemeral...

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Chapter 3: The Canadian Policy Context of Canada’s China Policy since 1970

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pp. 32-46

Commentary on relations between Canada and China relations tends to lament the shortcomings of Canada’s response to the challenge of China’s dramatic rise to power over the past thirty years. The perception is that Canada is not sufficiently politically and economically committed to China for Canada fully to realize Canadian interests in China. The focus of...

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Chapter 4: Canada and China: The China Strategy of 1987

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pp. 47-65

By 1985, fifteen years after Canada had recognized the People’s Republic of China, relations between the two countries had reached a level of maturity. Trade was steadily expanding and China ranked as Canada’s fifth largest trading partner. A growing number of high-level visits marked an apparent tightening of relations between the two governments. In...

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Chapter 5: The Politics of Soft Power in Sino-Canadian Relations: Stephen Harper’s Visit to China and the Neglected Hong Kong Factor

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pp. 66-80

While conventional wisdom regards the visit of the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper to China in December 2009 as a turning point, heralding warmer relations between Canada and China, a silent process involving China’s increasing “soft power” over Canada has been looming for some time. Th is chapter examines the various dimensions of...

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Chapter 6: Friends across the Pacific: Links between Canada and Hong Kong in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

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pp. 81-99

The extraordinarily intimate, multifaceted and mutually beneficial trans-Pacific bond between Canada and Hong Kong is not predicated on political-administrative ties such as those between a colonial power and a dependent territory, nor on war, conquest or military alliance, or a collective economic mode, and it is definitely not a case of...

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Chapter 7: Canadian and Chinese Collaboration on Education: From Unilateral to Bilateral Exchanges

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pp. 100-119

Collaboration on education started shortly after Canada and the People’s Republic of China established diplomatic relations in 1970, although scattered exchanges of academic visits had occurred before that date. Collaboration after 1970 mostly took the form of Canadian development programmes, featuring a strong sense of “internationalism” but remaining...

Canada-China: The Growing Interdependence

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Chapter 8: Canada and China after the Global Financial Crisis

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pp. 122-125

This week marks the first anniversary of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, the unofficial starting date of a global financial crisis unlike any we have seen in a generation. As we welcome the prospect of the Canadian economy emerging from recession, perhaps sooner than expected, the biggest danger we face is to assume that the world will be more or less the same as...

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Chapter 9: Post-Colonial Transformations in China’s Hong Kong and Macau: Implications for Cross-Taiwan-Strait and Canada–PRC Links

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pp. 126-132

Many Canadians believe that we are regarded as friends of China because of Pierre Trudeau, and because of the sacrifices of Norman Bethune, and, of course, Dashan is our best cultural ambassador to China. So why is it that, when Canadians travel to China today, we are asked by ordinary people, such as taxi drivers, why we hate them? This morning I will present an...

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Chapter 10: Hong Kong: Canada’s Partner in Prosperity

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pp. 133-138

I am very grateful for the invitation to join you for this meeting of the Hong Kong Canadian Business Association. Hong Kong is a true symbol of the new global economy and the key location where East meets West. It boasts an impressive resume: the world’s eleventh largest trading economy, the world’s sixth largest foreign exchange market, the world’s thirteenth largest banking...

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Chapter 11: The Transformative Effects of the Global Economic Crisis: Implications for the World and Shanghai’s Aspirations

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pp. 139-147

It is a special privilege for me to deliver this address in the great city of Shanghai on the occasion of the 2009 meeting of the International Business Leaders’ Advisory Council. I am pleased that among the very talented group of Advisory Council business leaders is my colleague and friend Laurent Beaudoin, whose company, Bombardier, is a global leader in rail equipment...

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Chapter 12: The Canadian Constitution and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms: A Global Template for Minority Rights with Relevance to China?

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pp. 148-156

The rights of minorities are an arena that is becoming perhaps the principal battle ground for human rights in the 21st century. Recent history seems to offer the stunning paradox that federal states may not be the best form of human governance for societies with multiethnic populations. The former Soviet Bloc had nine states, six of which were unitary states, while three...

The Chinese Diaspora and Immigration in Canada

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Chapter 13: Chinese in Canada and Canadians in China: The Human Platform for Relationships between China and Canada

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pp. 158-182

The movement of people across international borders has significant implications for international relations. Today the flow of people between Canada and China has become varied and complex, reflecting changing economic and social circumstances in the two economies, and the evolving China is a major source country for immigrants to Canada. The...

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Chapter 14: Transnational Intergenerational Support: Implications of Aging in Mainland China for the Chinese in Canada

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pp. 183-204

This chapter explores the potential impacts of population aging in mainland China on patterns and experiences of caring among Chinese immigrants in Canada, particularly women. (Throughout the rest of this chapter, references to “China” are to mainland China, excluding Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, except where otherwise stated.) We situate the study in the...

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Chapter 15: The Bridge Too Far?: Language Retention, Ethnic Persistence, and National Identification among the Chinese Diaspora in Canada

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pp. 205-221

Successful cultural and commercial exchanges often depend on the ability to function in a common language. Personal knowledge of two or more languages represents a form of human capital that enhances opportunities for interaction across cultural boundaries. Despite the expansion of English as a second language, global communication barriers persist. Even where...

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Chapter 16: Changing Territorial Strategies: Chinese Immigrants in Canada

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pp. 222-240

Canada is a country whose demographic evolution has depended upon immigration. In 2006 19.6 percent of its total population, or 6.2 million people, had been born outside Canada, and 3.8 million had settled in Canada after 1980. These new migration flows were part of a broader immigration boom in Canada, reflecting important changes in the country’s immigration...

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Chapter 17: Causes and Consequences: Overeducated Chinese Immigrantsin the Canadian Labour Market

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pp. 241-267

More than thirty years have passed since Richard Freeman’s influential book The Overeducated American (1976) described the growing tendency for workers to have more formal education than their jobs require, a tendency that Freeman suggested generated a pattern of declining returns to higher education within the United States. While a similar pattern was...

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Chapter 18: Conclusion: Reimagining Canada’s Present and Futurein the Shadow of the Rise of China

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pp. 268-279

Senator Poy and Dr. Cao have assembled contributions from policy practitioners and academic commentators that critically examine the Canada–China relationship over the past forty years. In this brief concluding chapter I look at what we must do in light of these contributions to build a robust partnership that will benefit both our countries, and the world, over...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 280-291


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pp. 292-294

E-ISBN-13: 9780776619552
E-ISBN-10: 0776619551
Print-ISBN-13: 9780776607641
Print-ISBN-10: 0776607642

Page Count: 344
Publication Year: 2011