Teaching Translation from Spanish to English
Worlds Beyond Words
Publication Year: 1996
Published by: University of Ottawa Press
Title page, Copyright, Dedication
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Now that the twentieth century, the era of translation, is coming to a close, there is no doubt that Translation Studies is fully established as a discipline of its own. Recent theoretical research has shown that translation is not only a textual operation, but also an act of communication and a cognitive process. Therefore, translation research should start from this triple perspective and, fortunately, can now ...
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This book is the result of conclusions drawn from two differing but complementary perspectives. The first is the practical perspective gained from exposure to the problems of translating and teaching translating. The second is the theoretical perspective gained from exposure to representatives of many different schools of translation studies. Through my job at the Faculty of Translators and Interpreters of the ...
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PART 1. INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSLATION
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Professional translators have been around for nearly five thousand years, and yet, like members of another of the "oldest professions," they are often forgotten, underrated, and misunderstood by the general public. However, the importance of translation should not be underestimated, particularly in a world that has to learn to husband its resources as one world or perish in the attempt. Without translators, ...
CHAPTER 2. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROSE TRANSLATION
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Translating from the mother tongue into a second language (traducci�n inversa, th�me) has become the Cinderella of translating among translators, translation theorists, and teachers of "real" translation (traducci�n directa, versi�n). It is so consistently ignored that it is difficult to know what to call it in English. The traditional English expression "prose translation" is not well known or often used. The 1964 ...
CHAPTER 3. CAN TRANSLATION BE TAUGHT?
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Much as I admire the work of William Weaver,4 my own experience denies his statement, Many professional translators, like Weaver, suggest that translating is an art that requires aptitude, practice, and general knowledge; and that the ability to translate is a gift that you either do or do not have. Lanna Castellano doubts whether a translator can be useful before the age of thirty and concludes that maturity ...
CHAPTER 4. TEACHING PROFESSIONAL PROSE TRANSLATION
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Despite the importance of prose translation, it has generally been ignored by translation theory. Nor has much attention been paid to developing a specific teaching methodology, although prose translation is included in all of the European schools of translation. Contemporary theories give the impression that directionality is not important—and perhaps it is not, from a strictly theoretical point of view. A professional ...
PART 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
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Translation teachers are obliged to work within three different frameworks: the theoretical framework of the "subject" they are teaching; the methodological framework related to education in general and to how people learn; and the classroom framework, which includes the constraints of one particular pair of languages, and of one particular set of students within a certain geographical and historical context. ...
CHAPTER 5. TRANSLATION (THEORY)
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It is easy for teachers to get lost in the maze of literature on the subject of translation. 6 Translation dates back almost as far as does writing itself, and translation has played an essential role in the spread of government, culture, and science. Bilingual inscriptions have been found in Mesopotamia that date from 3000 B.C. The bureaucratic apparatus of the Roman Empire could not have functioned without translators. ...
CHAPTER 6. TRANSLATING (PROCESS)
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The first part of the theoretical framework was about translation (the abstract concept that includes the process and the product). This second part is about translating (the process, the activity). Teaching prose translating—the activity, the skill—is the subject of this book, so it is essential to understand how people translate and whether the constraints of translating into a foreign language alter the process. This ...
CHAPTER 7. A TRANSLATION (TEXT)
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Micro-structural and macrostructural interdependence is the basis of text consumption and production and of translation. There is ample evidence of this interdependence in human action and language. Delisle's (1980) methodology is based on the interpretive theory of translation proposed by Seleskovitch, who found evidence of this interdependence in an analysis of the work of simultaneous and consecutive ...
PART 3. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
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The methodology described here is based on the definition of learner-centred objectives. It has been developed to help students become translators and, in particular, to translate into the foreign language. The methodology has to be student-centred— in this case, centred on students whose mother tongue is Spanish and for whom English is a foreign language, albeit at an advanced level. ...
CHAPTER 8. IDEAL TRANSLATOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
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According to Chomsky, competence is an ideal, abstract concept, whereas performance refers to what people actually do in the real world. This distinction is similar to de Saussure's langue-parole dichotomy. Therefore, if we define translation as "a communicative transaction taking place within a social framework" involving the transfer of "equivalent" meaning from the SLT to the TLT (Hatim and Mason, ...
CHAPTER 9. STUDENT TRANSLATOR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
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The constraints of translating into the foreign language are obviously important when considering student-translator communicative competence. The current trend in translation theory is to regard translating into the foreign language as unsatisfactory and artificial. This is made explicit in UNESCO's 1976 "Recommendations on the Legal Protection of Translators and Translations": "A translator ...
CHAPTER 10. THE TEACHING CONTEXT
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Employment opportunities for prose translation were discussed in the introduction. It was suggested that there are opportunities for oral translating, in which TL errors may be acceptable if they do not interfere with the informative communicative intent of the discourse or break politeness rules in the TL culture. It was also suggested that formalized prose translations in restricted registers will be asked of ...
CHAPTER 11. ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES
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The aim of this methodology is to teach a skill—translating. As has already been stressed, the translation class is above all a practical class, and yet the students have to understand the principles behind the process that they are taught to follow. They have to understand the "why" in order to be able to answer the "how." Whenever possible, the cycle of inquiry should be simplified. The students should be given ...
PART 4. UNDERSTANDING PRINCIPLES AND LEARNING SKILLS
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CHAPTER 12. WORDS IN CONTEXT
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The meaning of a word for a translator is decided by its general situational and verbal context, by its distribution and collocation. The context makes it possible to neutralize the polysemy of a word in a sentence and discover the meaning of the message. For example, Collins gives seven alternatives for saldo: settlement, payment, ...
CHAPTER 13. SENTENCES IN CONTEXT
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The sentence will not always provide enough Information to contextualize words; syntactic polysemy is solved by context. Sentences translated out of context and put together will not form a coherent and cohesive text and may even produce nonsense. Solving semantic ambiguity is the first stage in translation, but selection of lexis also depends on the register of the SLT. ...
CHAPTER 14. DEVERBALIZATION
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Rom�n Jakobson (1971) defined three types of translation: intersemiotic translation, interlingual translation, and intralingual translation. This exercise is based on the first type. Every day we practise intersemiotic translation by verbalizing signs and notices: speed limits, maps, washing instructions, computer programs, our personal and banking Identification numbers, and so on. It is a useful introduction to ...
CHAPTER 15. RESTRICTED CODES AND TRANSCODING
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This is a simple introductory exercise to help the students think about which fields of discourse use standardized language—that is, words and expressions that have become institutionalized and have only one possible translation in the TL. ...
CHAPTER 16. COHESION AND COHERENCE
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Cohesion in a text is provided by a network of lexical, grammatical, and other relationships that provide links in the surface structure of the text. Cohesion can be evaluated objectively, but different languages use cohesive devices (reference, substitution, conjunction, lexical and syntactic cohesion, chunking of information in sentences and paragraphs) differently. Translators have to consider the adjustment ...
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APPENDIX: SELECTED STRUCTURAL CONTRASTS AND GUIDED BlBLIOGRAPHY
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Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 1996
Volume Title: 3
Series Title: Didactics of Translation