Ecology, Conservation, and Restoration of Tidal Marshes
The San Francisco Estuary
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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San Francisco Estuary Tidal Marshes (Map)
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Map 1. Historical (1800, above) and modern (1998, next page) tidal marshes of the San Francisco ...
Global Salt Marshes (Map)
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Foreword: Some Thoughts on San Francisco Bay and Its Wetlands
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...Wetlands occur where land meets water. Wetlands, therefore, are not evenly spread over the surface of the Earth. Some areas, such as the Amazon and Siberia, have enormous wetlands, each of these being more than one million square kilometers. Most wetlands along the ocean coasts are much smaller, being limited on one side by uplands and on the other by ocean water that is too deep for rooted plants. The water levels in wetlands along coasts are...
Preface and Acknowledgments
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...numbers from Global Footprint Network (www .footprintnetwork.org), revealed that humanity's Ecological Footprint has more than doubled since 1966. In 2008, the most recent year for which data are available, humanity used the equivalent of 1.5 planets to support its activities. Tidal marshes represent just one example of an ecosystem whose historical and present states accurately reflect the above-mentioned trend. Despite being instrumental, in providing ecosystem services to human society (in addition to their...
1 • DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES ON TIDAL MARSHES: AN INTRODUCTION
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Figure 1.1. Topographic heterogeneity enhanced multiple ecosystem functions in a large field experiment at Tijuana Estuary, which is south of San Diego Bay and north of Mexico. The 8 ha site was excavated in 1999 to include three tidal creek networks, and it was opened to tidal flushing in February 2000. Thereafter, creek networks became more individualized, new creeks formed as branches off the main tidal channel, and tidal pools contributed additional topographic heterogeneity (see Wallace et al. 2005). Photos were taken in July 2003 by J. Zedler....
Part I • Ecology: Environment
2 • HISTORICAL FORMATION
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...on the central coast of California, a series of bedrock basins and narrow structural constrictions (straits) have produced Figure 2.1. Map of San Francisco Bay Estuary and its watershed. Research sites on the Figure 2.2. Sediment layers beneath the San Francisco Bay Estuary between San Francisco and Alameda, the site of a proposed “southern crossing.” Layer A contains the modern interglacial estuarine sediments (Bay mud). Layers B, C, and D are previous ...
3 • GEOMORPHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY, AND TIDAL INFLUENCES
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...as viewed from the air, tidal wetland land-scapes are uniquely beautiful and compel-ling; the branching, sinuous, blind-ended Figure 3.1. Types of marsh shorelines: (A) At China Camp Marsh, the shoreline is ramped. Aerial imagery shows a gradual elevation transition from the marsh plain to fronting tidal flats. (B) At Wildcat Marsh in Richmond, the shoreline is rilled. Imagery shows a finely dissected shoreline. (C) At Roe Island in Suisun Bay, ...
4 • POLLUTION: PERSISTENT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS AND TRACE METALS
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...growth of human population and indus-trialization in coastal areas have resulted in increased input of contaminants that Figure 4.1. Depth profiles of total probable effect level quotients (PELQs) of (A) organic contaminants, (B) trace metals, (C) mean PELQ in Stege Marsh sediment core (Hwang et al. 2008, 2009), and (D) total mercury concentrations in Triangle Marsh sediment core (Conaway et al. 2004). PELQ represents the degree of toxicity potential....
5 • POLLUTION: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS
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Estuaries and bays are critical habitats for many resident and migratory species, but they are also areas that are attractive to humans Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Biota from Selected RegionsLevels tend to be elevated in fish, marine mammals, and piscivorous birds overall, with lower levels in invertebrates and humans. Biomagnification is suggested by generally low levels in invertebrates (worms, zooplankton), with increasing levels in higher trophic level organisms (crabs, fish, birds, marine mammals)....
6 • TIDAL MARSHES IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
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...climate change and sea level rise (SLR) have created the history of tidal wetlands since the last glacial maximum over 21,000 years Figure 6.1. Principal processes driving climate change–based impacts on San ...
Part II • Ecology: Organisms
7 • TIDAL VEGETATION: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS
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...tidal wetlands occupy the transitional zone between intertidal mudflats and uplands. They are dynamic systems, maintaining note: Ranges shown are minimum and maximum ranges for the area of the Figure 7.4. Variation in salinity (in parts per thousand) across the estuary, and variation from tidal channel edges to the interior of a wetland. Values were collected during fall 2008. China Camp and the Petaluma River marsh are salt marshes, Coon Island and Rush Ranch are brackish tidal wetlands, Browns Island is an oligohaline tidal wetland, and Sand Mound ...
8 • TIDAL WETLAND VEGETATION AND ECOTONE PROFILES: THE RUSH RANCH OPEN SPACE PRESERVE
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...the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) is located at the northwestern edge of the Potrero Hills and includes the larg-Figure 8.1 (opposite). Fringing high marsh and terrestrial ecotone at Rush Landing, Suisun Slough (A), where the high marsh plain is dominated by diverse patches of clonal forbs and graminoids, including Juncus arcticus subsp. balticus (Baltic rush), Potentilla anserina subsp. pacifica (silverweed), Grindelia stricta (gumplant), and Euthamia occidentalis (western goldenrod). Terrestrial ecotone shifts toward dominance by clonal perennials Distichlis spicata (salt grass), ...
9 • INVERTEBRATES: PAST AND CURRENT INVASIONS
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Estuarine invertebrates represent a wide taxo-nomic range, from crabs and snails crawling across mudflats, to tiny clams and annelid Some Common Invertebrates in San Francisco Bay Salt Marshes That Are Known or Assumed to Be IntroducedScientific name (common name) Native range Method of introductionStreblospio benedicti W. Atlantic, Europe Oyster cultivation, ship Geukensia demissa (ribbed mussel) W. Atlantic Oyster cultivation...
10 • INVERTEBRATES: A CASE STUDY OF CHINA CAMP STATE PARK, MARIN COUNTY
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...intertidal habitats present a harsh physical envi-ronment for resident invertebrates. Twice-daily tides subject terrestrial invertebrates to the risk Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) by Subhabitat for Pit Trap and Sweep Net SamplesCapture method Taxon (order) Channel Marsh plain Natural levee pComparison of Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) of Common Taxa by Channel Order, Bold text indicates the channel size with the greatest CPUE, where results are significant....
11 • FISHES
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...the tidal marshes of the San Francisco Estu-ary fall into three broad overlapping catego-ries: the freshwater marshes of the Delta, Number of Significant Fish Species in Three Tidal Marsh Systems of the San Francisco Estuary1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Figure 11.1. Trends in fish populations of Suisun Marsh 1980–2009, showing major events that have affected populations. The bottom two areas represent native fishes; the top two, alien fishes....
12 • BIRD COMMUNITIES: EFFECTS OF FRAGMENTATION, DISTURBANCE, AND SEA LEVEL RISE ON POPULATION VIABILITY
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...the San Francisco Bay Estuary supports a large and diverse bird community. More than 50% of most Pacific flyway diving Figure 12.1. Variation in tidal range (mean lower low water to mean higher high water) from sites across the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Tidal data compiled from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website (http://www.tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov).Figure 12.2. Representative bird species and their salt marsh habitats along the tidal ...
13 • SMALL MAMMALS
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...this chapter will concentrate on the small rodents and shrews that live in the marshes of the San Francisco Bay. Some mention ...
Part III • Conservation and Restoration
14 • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
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Ecosystems generate a range of goods and services important for human well-being, collectively called ecosystem services. Eco-...
15 • POLICY: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES&
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...today we look out upon a San Francisco Estuary that bears only passing resem-blance to that which existed before the ...
16 • RESEARCH RESERVES AS A MODEL FOR CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF TIDAL MARSHES
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Figure 16.1. Upland and tidal brackish marsh at Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve in Solano County, California. This marsh is embedded within Suisun Marsh, historically the largest contiguous tidal marsh in California. Undeveloped tracts of marsh-upland ecotone at this site represent valuable opportunities for estuarine transgression in response to Figure 16.2. Tidal salt marsh at China Camp State Park in Marin County, California. The elevation gradient from Bay to upland includes both centennial marsh, with relatively straight channels formed since the Gold Rush when hydraulic ...
17 • NATURAL AND RESTORED TIDAL MARSH COMMUNITIES
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Ecological restoration, the process of assist-ing recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (Society Figure 17.1. (A) Former ancient marsh channels still visible in a diked salt evaporation pond. (B) Rare plants Muilla maritima, Castilleja ambigua ssp. ambigua, and Lasthenia glabrata (left to right) at Whittell Marsh. (C) Newly establishing vegetation at Cooley Landing. (D) Nearly monotypic Sarcocornia pacifica stands on the low-complexity plains of Cogswell Marsh. Photos, Whitney Thornton; aerial images, property of California Coastal Conservancy’s Invasive Spartina Project....
18 • CURRENT ISSUES IN TIDAL MARSHRESTORATION
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...while the restoration of tidal marshes enhances existing ecosystem processes, what happens when those processes are ...
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Page Count: 288
Publication Year: 2012