California Indian Languages
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: University of California Press
Title Page, Copyright
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...diff erences and a multitude of tiny village-level polities have six groups, fi ve for the larger classifi catory units to which by a similar logic, are all of the Numic languages as far afi eld of C. Hart Merriam’s massive collection of linguistic and eth-K. Silver, Norval Smith, Sheri Tatsch, the late Karl V. Teeter, ...
PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY USED IN THIS BOOK
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Throughout this book, words and elements cited from Indian languages are written in italics in the normalized pho-netic orthography that is detailed in Table 1 (for other phonetic orthographies that have been used in transcribing California languages, see Appendix C). When names and occasionally other words are cited in their traditional spell-ing, these forms are not italicized and are sometimes enclosed in double quotes.[ ] (enclosing an Indian form) indicates a phonetic transcription...
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Anyone who has paid the slightest attention to the aboriginal languages of California knows that there were a lot of them. In the core region west of the Sierra Nevada and the Mohave Desert, a signifi cantly larger number of mutu-ally unintelligible linguistic systems were in use than could reasonably be predicted from diff erences in ecology, subsistence strategy, or social organization. Instead, the primary factor generating linguistic diversity seems to have been the evolution, over millennia, of a sociopolitical landscape that consisted of a mosaic of tribelets—tiny but ...
PART 2HISTORY OF STUDY
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Between Cabrillo’s fi rst exploration of the southern coast in 1542 and the raising of the Bear Flag at Sonoma three centuries later, little attempt was made to document the indigenous languages of the California region. It was only in the years following the Gold Rush that the nature and diversity of California languages came to be appreciated. But knowledge accumulated fast, and by the mid-1870s John Wesley Powell was able to compile an extensive com-parative vocabulary and outline a family-level classifi cation (see Box 4)....
PART 3LANGUAGES AND LANGUAGE FAMILIES
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In Part 3 will be found the descriptive details of the approximately eighty languages of the California region, includ-ing their territories, subdivisions, and cultural associations; a summary of their linguistic documentation; and a short, semitechnical sketch of their principal phonological and grammatical characteristics. The presentation of this information is organized in twenty-three sections, each, in general, corresponding to one of the fi rst-order (“inspec-tionally obvious”) historical units, or families, into which John Wesley Powell and his coworkers grouped the lan-...
PART 4TYPOLOGICAL AND AREAL FEATURES
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Varied though their histories may be, the languages of the California region share a number of characteristics that may be called “Californian.” Some of these features are localized enough to defi ne a California linguistic area or a signifi cant subgroup of languages within such an area. Others are more widespread, but they are given special emphasis in the region, or they form patterns with other features in a distinctively Californian way. Certain features, particularly some of those associated with the Athabaskan languages, tend in their very deviation from the Califor-...
PART 5LINGUISTIC PREHISTORY
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Part 5 summarizes the work of linguists and archaeologists who have attempted to infer certain prehistoric connections and movements in California and adjacent areas from the patterns of diversity within languages, language families, and phyla, and from the distribution of loanwords and other shared linguistic features. Possible correlations are noted with the models of California prehistory that have been constructed by archaeologists, and more recently by geneticists, but no attempt is made to bring the diversity of facts and interpretations together in a ...
A P P E N D I X A
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...were essentially the same ones that guided his fi eld collection variation in a species (in this case a language “stock”) by and fi led according to Merriam’s own classifi catory scheme, manuscripts (see ¶2.7.1), but access to the original materials complete photocopy of Merriam’s fi eld journals is on fi le in ...
A P P E N D I X B
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...languages he spent his research time. The offi cial reports he materials that he kept in his Smithsonian offi ce. The bulk of as in the care of various individuals, including in a few cases reason to believe that the location of some of it still remains material in the BAE archives, and after the transfer of the BAE ...
A P P E N D I X C
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...during the fi rst half of the twentieth century, C. Hart Merriam until recent decades, and its use is still largely confi ned to Principal Transcription Systems Used for California Indian Languages...
A P P E N D I X D
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...1 kúcəɾ (‘it is one thing’)9 ko:raʔ (‘it is one thing’)105 weʔsaγ hələɾ (‘there are fi ve things’)11 meruh čo:’m (‘there are fi ve things’)128 naxə-nto (‘lacking two’) k̯ʰe:nim k̯ʰe:nimin ‘eight people’9 ƚaʔ-nto (‘lacking one’) miq’ost’aw (‘at its neck’)100 ƚaʔ-čʰən (‘one stick’)16 tik̯ʰin (cf. k̯ʰiŋ ‘stick, tree’)17...
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...(¶3.34), or the languages of the southernmost part of Baja Cali-fornia (¶3.37). For the levels of linguistic classifi cation used in logical, and structural—within which Californian languages and cultures came to be studied. The texture of this interdisciplinary lary has diverged, as have portions of the tense-aspect system,” ...
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Workshop. Held at the University of California, San Diego, June City, June 21–23, 1977, edited by James E. Redden. Occasional Held at the University of California, Los Angeles, 1979, edited by State University, Rohnert Park, California, June 29–July 2, 1981. 1982 (UC Santa Cruz). Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far ...
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Note: Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations. Page numbers in italics followed by m indicate maps; page numbers in italics followed by t indicate ...
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Page Count: 400
Publication Year: 2011