From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean
The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, About the Series, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication
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List of Illustrations
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Itisnotpossibletothankalltheindividualswhohavegivensogenerouslyoftheirtimeandexpertise.Iwouldliketosingleoutforspecialmentionthosewhosehelpwasindispensableduringthewritingofthisbook.Iamgratefulforthepatienceand expert guidance of my advisers and mentors while this book was in its dis-sertation stage: Francesca Trivellato, Rudi Matthee, Nader Sohrabi, and Partha...
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Forsomescholars,nodoubt,archivalworkislogisticallytoodifficultortem-peramentally uncongenial. Such must survive by their theorizing, and hopetoinventaconceptwhichcatcheson.ButhistoryistooimportanttobelefttoSomestudiesareidea-driven;attheirinceptionisanotionortheoryaboutaprocessofhistoricaldevelopment.Thewriterusuallybeginswithaninsightthatmayhelp...
Note on Transliteration
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Ingeneral,IhaveutilizedtheArmenianscriptinthenotestotranscribelongerpas-sagesfromarchivaldocuments.Shorterpassagesinthebodyofthetextaswellastitles of works originally written in Armenian have been transliterated using theschemeoftheJournaloftheSocietyofArmenianStudies(JSAS).Basedonthesys-temdevelopedbytheLibraryofCongress,theJSAS transliteration scheme relies...
1. From Trade Diasporas to Circulation Societies
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During the Safavid-Ottoman wars of 1603–1605, the Safavid monarch Shah ‘Ab-basI(r.1587–1629)practiced“scorchedearth”tactics,layingwastetothefrontierregionsofhisempire,deportingupto300,000Armeniansandothersfromthefron-tierterritories,andresettlingthemintheinteriorofhisrealm.1Whilemanyofthedeportees suffered from their brutal displacement and perished during their de-...
2. Old Julfa, the Great Deportations, and the Founding of New Julfa
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...willbequeathinghishouseontheedgeoftheArasRiveralongwithhispatrimo-nialgardens,whichformedthesouthernperimeterofthetown,tothechildrenofhis brother, Selim.1 This will is the oldest preserved document in the All Savior’sMonastery Archive in Julfa, Isfahan. It most likely would have been entirely in-significantwereitnotforthefactthatitisatthispointthesolesurvivingtextual...
3. The Julfan Trade Network I:TheWorld of the Indian Ocean
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4. The Julfan Trade Network II: The Mediterranean, Northwestern European, and Russian Networks
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The extension of the Julfan network into the “West”—the Mediterranean, north-westernEuropean,andRussiancircuits—wasoneofitsdistinctivefeaturesandanimportantreasonforitscontinuousgrowthandprosperityintheseventeenthandfirst half of the eighteenth century. Western expansion made the Julfan merchantcommunityanimportantbridgeintheearlymodernperiodforeconomicandcul-...
5. “The salt in a merchant’s letter”: Business Correspondence and the Courier System
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6. The Circulation of Men and Credit:The Commenda and the Family Firm
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...wives,sons,daughters,inastateofforlornness,inneedandafflicted,andtheyscatter themselves throughout the world like locusts or like snow until theEurope [ashkhars Frankats‘] and in Constantinople and throughout theBalkansandtheregionofScandinavia[yerkirngutats‘vots‘]andinPoland,Russia, and Muscovy as well as throughout Hyrcania and Central Asia...
7. Trust, Social Capital, and Networks: Informal and Semiformal Institutions at Work
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Trustconsistsofplacingvaluedoutcomesatrisktoothers’malfeasance,mis-takes,orfailures.Trustrelationshipsincludethoseinwhichpeopleregularlytake such risks. Although some trust relationships remain purely dyadic, forthemostparttheyoperatewithinanetworkofsimilarrelationships.Trustnetworks, then, consist of ramified interpersonal connections, consisting...
8. The Center Cannot Hold: The Decline and Collapse of the Julfan Trade Network
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Allnetworks,eventhemostsolid,soonerorlaterencountereddifficultyormis-fortune.Andanyfailingatthecenterofthenetworksentoutripplesthataf-In his characteristically astute fashion Fernand Braudel remarks that trade net-workscollapsebecauseof“failings”andattendantcomplicationsthatoccurattheircenter but have devastating ramifications beyond the core. Braudel’s account of...
Conclusion: Comparative Thoughts on Julfan Armenians, Multani Indians, and Sephardic Jews
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Inaneraofwhencontractscouldbehardtoenforce,especiallyacrosspoliti-cal boundaries, it helped to deal with people who came from the same placeyoudid....Incaseatradingpartnerwastemptedtocheatyou,ithelpedthattheirrelativesandyourslivedneareachother.Ifworsecametoworst,thereMostscholarshipon“tradediasporas,”orlong-distancemercantilecommunities...
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Acknowledgments, Production Notes
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Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 2011
Series Title: California World History Library