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Early Life History of Marine Fishes

Bruce Miller

Publication Year: 2009

The life cycles of fishes are complex and varied, and knowledge of the early life stages is important for understanding the biology, ecology, and evolution of fishes. In Early Life History of Marine Fishes, Bruce S. Miller and Arthur W. Kendall Jr., bring together in a single reference much of the research available and its application to fishery science—knowledge increasingly important because for most fishes, adult populations are determined at the earliest stages of life. Clear and well written, this book offers expert guidance on how to collect and analyze larval fish data and on how this information is interpreted by applied fish biologists and fisheries managers.

Published by: University of California Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

...The diversity of reproductive patterns seen in fishes far surpasses that seen in any other group of vertebrates. At one extreme, some fishes broadcast large numbers of small, free-floating eggs into the sea to be fertilized externally and develop as part of the plankton with no further involvement by the parents. At the other extreme, some fishes develop within the female and...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

...This book is a culmination of careers by both authors studying the ELH of fishes. Although our careers took different paths, our interests in ELH studies started at the University of Washington (UW) where we were both graduate students in the early 1960s; Bruce in the College of Fisheries and Art in the Department of Oceanography. Dr. Alan DeLacy, Bruce’s major professor in Fisheries, was instrumental in developing...

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The Cover Art Work

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pp. xi-xii

...Off the coast of North Carolina on 31 July 1967, we hauled a Cobb midwater trawl onto the deck of the R V Dolphin, as we had done so many times before. What could have become routine was always exciting, as we eagerly dumped the cod end to get our first glimpse of the fish larvae and juveniles that we caught. This time we were...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

...The life history of fishes can be broken down into five developmental stages. The egg or embryonic stage begins at fertilization and ends at hatching. During the egg stage development from a single cell to a complex organism occurs. Although the pattern of development is similar in all fishes, the site of development varies considerably. The egg stage is spent within the female in live-bearing fishes, and externally in oviparous fishes...

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1. Fish Reproduction

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pp. 9-38

...Each fish species has evolved in response to a unique set of selective pressures, hence species often differ in their life-history strategies; each life-history strategy is a set of developmental adaptations that allows a species to achieve evolutionary success. Each life-history stage (i.e., egg, larval, juvenile, adult) has a number of possible alternative states, but the life history of a given species consists of only one of these states for each life-history...

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2. Development of Eggs and Larvae

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pp. 39-54

Chapter 1 discussed reproduction in fishes, and the development of gametes within the adults. Chapter 2 summarizes information on the development of the eggs and larvae, and introduces juvenile development. Chapter 3 examines the diversity of eggs and larvae, where we find that certainly the eggs, and in most cases the larvae, are quite different in appearance from the adults, but nevertheless they have distinctive characters

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3. Fish Egg and Larval Identification and Systematics

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pp. 55-124

...Most ichthyoplankton studies require accurate identifications of eggs and larvae. Generally several kinds of fish eggs and larvae co-occur in plankton samples, so at least the species of interest needs to be separated from the others. It is usually a good practice to attempt to identify all eggs and larvae in the samples. This ensures that the species of interest will be recognized and separated. Also, in some cases other...

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4. Ecology of Fish Eggs and Larvae

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pp. 125-146

...The relationships of plants and animals to their environment are complex. Organisms interact with many facets of their physical environment as well as with other plants and animals. Ecology is the study of these relationships and interactions. An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals that depend on each other and the environment of the area for their existence. Some ecosystems are small and clearly bounded...

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5. Sampling Fish Eggs and Larvae

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pp. 147-180

...Most marine fish eggs and larvae are planktonic, that is they drift with the currents in the ocean with little or no control of their horizontal distribution. Together, these fish eggs and larvae are referred to as ichthyoplankton. They can be sampled with gear that has been designed primarily for collecting larger invertebrate zooplankton. This gear is usually a frame covered with mesh to filter the plankton from the water. Since fish eggs and larvae are usually much less abundant than invertebrate...

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6. Population Dynamics and Recruitment

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pp. 181-228

...In order to manage harvested fish populations, the sources and magnitude of changes in population size must be known. How much of the variation in population size is due to natural causes and how much is due to fishing? How much of the population can be harvested without affecting its ability to reproduce itself? When considering the impact of pollution or other anthropogenic habitat changes, it is essential to know how fish populations are affected; are changes due to these factors...

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7. Habitat, Water Quality, and Conservation Biology

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pp. 229-244

...Fishes occur in almost all natural waters on Earth: from caves and hot springs, to the deepest parts of the ocean, and under the sea ice of the Antarctic Ocean. Fish eggs and larvae also occur in an incredible array of habitats. The habitat of the early stages is not necessarily the same as that of the adult. A number of spawning migrations take place so that eggs may be laid in areas far from those inhabited by the adults. For...

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8. Rearing and Culture of Marine Fishes

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pp. 245-258

...followed their development through hatching, leading to culturing and releasing large numbers of yolk sac larvae into the sea off Norway, which he felt might ameliorate the occurrence of unfavorable year-classes (see Kendall and Duker 1998). Johan Hjort fought hard, but largely in vain, to have sampling conducted to...

Laboratory Exercises

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pp. 259-292

Glossary

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pp. 293-302

Literature Cited

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pp. 303-340

Taxonomical Index

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pp. 341-348

General Index

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pp. 349-364


E-ISBN-13: 9780520943766
Print-ISBN-13: 9780520249721

Page Count: 376
Publication Year: 2009