Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree
Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication
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...3. Five Anole Faunas, Part One: Greater Antillean Ecomorphs • 298. Cradle to Grave: Anole Life History and Population Biology • 1359. Social Behavior, Sexual Selection, and Sexual Dimorphism • 161...
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Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles is the tenthvolume in the University of California Press’s series on organisms and environments,whose unifying themes are the diversity of plants and animals, the ways they interactwith each other and with their surroundings, and the implications of those relationshipsfor science and society. We seek books that promote unusual, even unexpected connec-...
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My first recollection of an Anolis lizard is from a trip to Miami to visit a great-aunt whenI was about ten. She lived near a park, where I happily chased green anoles, only to bescared out of my wits by the unexpected appearance of an enormous Cuban Knightanole (A. equestris). Since then, anoles have been a recurrent theme in my life. In bothjunior and senior high school, I conducted classroom projects on the Florida green...
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A green lizard sits on the bank at the edge of a tiny stream near the town of Soroa inwestern Cuba. It may appear unassuming, but this is not your ordinary lizard. Its headis cocked sideways as it peers into the water. Suddenly, it dives into the water, emergingA little later, one of these lizards basks near the water. Another lizard of the samespecies approaches. They nod their heads at each other, and then the larger one gives...
1. Evolutionary Biology as Historical Science
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When we regard every production of nature as one which has had a longhistory; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, in the same way asany great mechanical invention is the summing up of the labor, the experience, thereason, and even the blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each...
2. Meet the Anoles!
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The goal of this chapter is twofold. First, to introduce anoles: what they are, what makesthem unique, and where they occur. Second, to focus on what it is to be an anole species.How do species differ from one another? How do we tell one from another? How do theytell one from another? Of course, understanding what constitutes a species is a prereq-uisite for studying how new species arise from old ones, so this discussion will set the...
3. Five Anole Faunas, Part One
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In this and the next chapter, I break anole diversity into five groups, correspondingmostly to the anoles of different regions. “Fauna” is used loosely, as two of these faunasco-occur, and another fauna extends over the majority of the geographic distribution ofthese lizards. The rationale for this dissection is that these faunas exhibit different pat-terns of ecological and evolutionary diversity and consequently illuminate different phe-...
4. Five Anole Faunas, Part Two
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Although they’ve received the lion’s share of research, the ecomorphs are not the wholeanole story. Not even most of it. In fact, less than one anole species in three is a GreaterAntillean ecomorph. In this chapter, I introduce the other elements of anole diversity,namely the unique (or non-ecomorph) anoles of the Greater Antilles, and the anoles ofthe smaller islands of the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and Central America....
5. Phylogenetics Evolutionary Inference and Anole Relationships
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In the previous two chapters, I have described the distribution and diversity of anoleswith little mention of evolution. Yet, some of the patterns of anole diversity beg, no,scream for evolutionary analysis. Are members of the same ecomorph class on differentislands closely related? How many times have large and small body size evolved in theLesser Antilles? Are the West Indian anoles descended from mainland taxa, or did it...
6. Phylogenetic Perspective on the Timing and Biogeography of Anole Evolution
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Our current understanding of anole phylogeny (Chapter 5) provides substantial insightinto the evolution of the anole faunas. Throughout the rest of the book, I will frequentlyuse this knowledge to address questions concerning the origin and maintenance ofanole biodiversity. In this chapter, I will focus on two seminal, if at times maddeninglyinconclusive, issues: When did anoles arise? And how did they attain their current...
7. Evolution of Ecomorphological Diversity
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Fortunately, the uncertainties about the biogeographic history of Anolis discussed in theprevious chapter have little bearing on understanding of patterns of ecomorphologicalradiation and diversification, at least within the West Indies. Phylogenetic informationindicates that for the most part anoles have radiated independently on each island of thePhylogenetic analysis is critical to investigating patterns of ecomorph evolution. The...
8. Cradle to Grave
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Before tackling the question of how anole species interact (Chapter 11), and how such in-teractions might drive evolutionary change (Chapter 12), I need to discuss what makesanoles tick. That is, how do anoles interact with their environment? What happens dur-ing the course of an anole lifetime and why? These questions will be the focus of this andThe goal of this chapter is to review the basic aspects of anole population biology and...
9. Social Behavior, Sexual Selection, and Sexual Dimorphism
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Sexual selection—“the advantage which certain individuals have over others of the samesex and species solely in respect of reproduction” (Darwin, 1871)—is a topic of great in-terest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. The past 25 years have seen a tremen-dous upsurge in interest in sexual selection, and a concomitant documentation of itsnear ubiquity throughout the animal and even plant worlds (e.g., Andersson, 1994;...
10. Habitat Use
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A key factor in understanding anole biological diversity is habitat use. Within localities,coexisting species invariably differ in some aspect of habitat use. Across the landscape,species replace each other as the environment changes. Through time, habitat useevolves within clades in predictable ways. These will be important themes throughoutthe remainder of the book. In this chapter, I will discuss the various aspects of the envi-...
11. Ecology and Adaptive Radiation
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Adaptive radiation is the evolutionary divergence of members of a clade to adapt to theenvironment in a variety of different ways (Simpson, 1953; Givnish, 1997; Schluter,2000).258 Some of the most spectacular case studies in evolutionary biology are adaptiveradiations. Consider Darwin’s finches which, in the absence of many other types oflandbirds in the Galápagos, have diversified to adapt to a wide variety of niches usually...
12. Natural Selection and Microevolution
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The anole radiation is characterized by divergence of closely related species into differ-ent ecological niches, producing communities composed of ecologically differentiatedspecies. The theory of adaptive radiation presented in the last chapter posits that thisdiversity is the evolutionary result of ecological interactions between initially similarThree predictions stem from this theory. Two of these predictions—that sympatric...
13. Form Function, and Adaptive Radiation
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The previous two chapters have focused on the ecological side of adaptive radiation, dis-cussing how interspecific interactions drive ecological shifts and how natural selectionsubsequently leads to evolutionary change. In this chapter, I take the macroevolutionaryperspective: faced with a clade composed of species that are phenotypically differentiatedand that occupy distinct ecological niches, how do we test the hypothesis that the pheno-...
14. Speciation and Geographic Differentiation
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Adaptive radiation involves both multiplication of species from a single ancestor andecological and phenotypic diversification of these species, with the end result that com-munities are composed of multiple species adapted to different niches. The focus of thelast several chapters has been on the second of these two aspects, but the first, the man-ner in which one ancestral species gives rise to many descendant species, is equally...
15. The Evolution of an Adaptive Radiation
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In Chapter 11, I defined adaptive radiation as the evolutionary divergence of members ofa clade to adapt to the environment in a variety of different ways and presented three pre-. Species interact ecologically, primarily by competing for resources.. As a result of these interactions, species alter their resource use.. As a result of shifts in resource use, species evolve appropriate adaptations....
16. The Five Faunas Reconsidered
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The Anolis evolutionary pageant exhibits a fundamental duality. On one hand, theGreater Antillean ecomorphs are renowned for convergence of entire communities,with the same set of ecomorphs evolving repeatedly. On the other hand, only one ofthe other four anole faunas—the anoles of the small islands of the Greater Antilles—contains many types of ecomorphs. The story of three of the other anole faunas—the...
17. Are the Anoles Special, and If So, Why?
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What’s so great about anoles? Why have I written a whole book about them—andspent more than 20 years studying them—and why have you read the book? Of course,they’re attractive and engaging little creatures, with great variety and entertainingbehavior. But if that were their only claim to fame, this book would be of limitedQuite the contrary, anoles are receiving ever-increasing attention: more and more...
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In this section, I present a list of all West Indian anole species and of all mainlandspecies mentioned in the text. In addition, Figure A.1 presents the complete phylogenyfrom Nicholson et al.  that served as the basis for several figures in this book andThis list is based primarily on Caribherp (http://evo.bio.psu.edu/caribherp/lists/wi-list.htm), last modified December 6, 2007 (at the time of writing). I have not included...
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Abzhanov, A., W.P. Kuo, C. Hartmann, B.R. Grant, P.R. Grant, and C.J. Tabin. 2006.The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin’sAbzhanov, A., M. Protas, B.R. Grant, P.R. Grant, and C.J. Tabin. 2004. BMP4 and morpho-logical variation of beaks in Darwin’s finches. Science 305:1462–1465.Ackerly, D.D., D.W. Schwilk, and C.O. Webb. 2006. Niche evolution and adaptive radiation:...
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Page numbers followed by f refer to figures, t refer to tables and n refer to notes....
Page Count: 528
Publication Year: 2009
Series Title: Organisms and Environments