The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems
Publication Year: 2008
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Quotes
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Attending scientific meetings may be the least professional thing that scientists do. Meetings are a lot about personal interactions, and the outcomes of personal interactions are dependent on attributes such as gender (males tend to have an advantage), size (increased height is more influential than increased weight), ...
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This book wrote itself in a matter of a few months. Given the often demonstrated inverse relationship between time spent and errors generated, and the opposite, direct relationship between eyes observing and perspective achieved (faculty meetings excepted), ...
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As a cultural phenomenon it began in the summer of 1995 in south-central Minnesota, with school kids on a field trip.2 While exploring a rural wetland, Cindy Reinitz and her junior high school students discovered a large number of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) that were having trouble jumping. ...
1. What is an Amphibian Malformation?
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The word “malformation” literally means “bad form.” Bad form in most animals means an unintended lack of symmetry, or an imbalance in structure, color, or other quality. A lack of symmetry can arise through one of three mechanisms:2 ...
2. Malformed Frog Types
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In an attempt to organize, and to correlate effect with cause, malformations, whether human, frog, or otherwise, have tended to be divided into types. Malformation types are almost always based on: (1) structures absent or reduced, (2) structures duplicated (or multiplied), and (3) structures present but otherwise abnormal ...
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In amphibian conservation biology, the term “hotspot” is used in two contrasting ways. One way, with a good implication, is to denote a site or a region with high amphibian richness. These places are usually located in tropical or subtropical ecosystems and are often the focus of intense conservation efforts. ...
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The year 2006 marked the 300th anniversary of known published observations of malformed frogs. The recognition that malformed frogs preceded the beginning of the Industrial Revolution by about 150 years and preceded modern agricultural techniques (including the application of pesticides) ...
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There has been nothing tidy about the malformed frog investigation. Examining the field, some workers have chosen terms like the “complexity of deformed amphibians”2 or an “eco-devo riddle”3 as descriptors. At face value this is true, but I gently disagree that we need more data. ...
6. Human Malformations and Causes
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The fear that what was happening to frogs could happen to humans is the major reason why the malformed frog problem tipped in 1996. As with many ways of thinking about malformed frogs, the logic behind this concern is sound. Something in the water is causing frog malformations; ...
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Why is it that when human congenital malformations are addressed, the full suite of abnormalities and the full range of causes are considered, but when addressing malformations in frogs, the focus is typically only on single causes and their effects on hindlimbs, and then often only on hindlimb polymely? ...
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Amphibian malformations are not evenly distributed across taxa. As mentioned in Chapter 1, amphibian malformations tend to be frog malformations. A quick count shows that 52 of 105 U.S. frog species (50%) had documented malformations compared with 19 of 188 U.S. salamander species (10%). ...
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Production Notes, Back Cover
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Page Count: 288
Publication Year: 2008