A Critical History of Early Rome
From Prehistory to the First Punic War
Publication Year: 2005
In addition to its value as an authoritative synthesis of current research, A Critical History of Early Rome offers a revisionist interpretation of Rome's early history through its innovative use of ancient sources. The history of this period is notoriously difficult to uncover because there are no extant written records, and because the later historiography that affords the only narrative accounts of Rome's early days is shaped by the issues, conflicts, and ways of thinking of its own time. This book provides a groundbreaking examination of those surviving ancient sources in light of their underlying biases, thereby reconstructing early Roman history upon a more solid evidentiary foundation.
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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...8. Evolution and Growth of the Roman State, 444–367 B.C. / 23410. Rome’s Conquest and Unification of Italy, 299–264 B.C. / 324...
LIST OF TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
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...6. Chronological distribution of new clans attaining high office / 165...
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The many debts of gratitude incurred in the course of researching andwriting this book are too numerous to be easily enumerated, but commondecency requires that the author at least make an attempt to acknowledgethe most obvious and important ones. Thanks are due to Kurt A. Raaflaub,A. John Graham, Martin Ostwald, Michael Alexander, Brent Vine, Mark...
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...only love, and the great passion of my life. Words cannot expressAs your name suggests, you have been and continue to be a truly ...
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This book narrates the early history of Rome, one of the most successfulimperial powers of world history. Although the story told here ends withthe subjugation of Italy and thus does not treat the great wars of overseasconquest, during Rome’s advancement from a small town on the TiberRiver to the ruling power of the Italian peninsula the Romans in large mea-...
1. Italy in Prehistory
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The past two hundred years of human history have witnessed continuousand rapid technological change and progress on an unparalleled scale. Yetdespite the highly advanced nature of present-day technology, geographicaland climatic factors still exercise a profound influence upon the regionaleconomies and cultures of human populations worldwide. The presence or...
2. Archaic Italy c. 800–500 B.C.
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Cultural and technological advancement in Italy from the Neolithic Ageonwards was largely bound up with influences received directly or indi-rectly from central Europe, the Balkan peninsula, and the Near East. Thispattern continued during the period covered in the present chapter, butwith far more important consequences. Phoenician and Greek perma-...
3. The Ancient Sources for Early Roman History
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The history of Rome’s regal period and early republic is highly problematicdue to the fact that ancient accounts were written during the second andfirst centuries B.C., long after the events that they described.1 Consequently,modern historians often disagree substantially in their interpretations andreconstructions, depending upon their presuppositions concerning the...
4. Rome During the Regal Period
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Our two primary sources of information for Rome during the regal periodare the ancient literary tradition and archaeological data, both of which arehighly problematic for different reasons. As the surviving fragments fromFabius Pictor’s historical account show, the traditions surrounding Rome’searly kings were already well established at the time of the Hannibalic War,...
5. Archaic Roman Religion
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Given the important role religion played in early Roman affairs and in shap-ing Rome’s institutions, an overview of the subject may be considered essen-tial for a full understanding of early Roman society and its cultural andpolitical development.1 Since we possess a substantial amount of ancientevidence about religious ideas and practices among other peoples of Italy,...
6. The Beginning of the Roman Republic
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According to the ancient literary tradition, Rome’s last king, TarquiniusSuperbus (Tarquin the Proud), was a cruel tyrant. He murdered ServiusTullius, usurped royal power, oppressed the senate, and worked the Romanpeople to exhaustion by making them labor on the sewer system of theCloaca Maxima which drained the runoff from the hills into the Tiber. He...
7. Rome of the Twelve Tables
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Perhaps the single most important and lasting innovation in the Romanstate around the middle of the fifth century B.C. was the Law of the TwelveTables, so-called because this first major codification of law was initiallyengraved on twelve bronze tablets and was displayed in public. Even thoughmany of this early lawcode’s specific provisions eventually became obsolete,...
8. Evolution and Growth of the Roman State, 444–367 B.C.
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Shortly after the codification of the Twelve Tables, the chief executive officeof the Roman state was reorganized.1 Beginning in 444 B.C. and extendingdown to 367 B.C., the eponymous officials of the Roman state fluctuatedbetween two consuls and a board of military tribunes with consular power(also termed consular tribunes), who were at first three in number but were...
9. Rome’s Rise to Dominance, 366–300 B.C.
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The primary purpose behind the reorganization of 367 B.C. was to providethe Roman state with a new set of officials with differentiated functions toreplace the board of six military tribunes with consular power.1 An equallyimportant secondary result of this legislation was the agreement within theRoman aristocracy to share these newly established offices between mem-...
10. Rome’s Conquest and Unification of Italy, 299–264 B.C.
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The period of peace following the Second Samnite War was brief.1 Since weare not informed of the exact terms of the settlement of 304 B.C., we haveno way of knowing to what extent, if any, the terms of peace created resent-ment or set up potential areas of conflict and thereby contributed to theoutbreak of war six years later in 298 B.C. Livy’s explanation of the cause...
APPENDIX: EARLY ROMAN CHRONOLOGY
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From the year 300 B.C. onwards the Roman list of consuls is secure, and Romandates are absolute, but this is not the case for the period preceding 300 B.C. Thereason for this needs to be understood in order to appreciate fully the historical andhistoriographical difficulties surrounding some of the more important problems ofThe dates used throughout this book for Roman affairs before 300 B.C. are those...
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For additional bibliographical references the reader should consult Salmon 1967,405–16; Heurgon 1973, 261–312; Richard 1978, 601–26; Raaflaub 1986, 379–433;Hölkeskamp 1987, 259–76; CAH IV. 1988, 864–82; CAH VII.2 1989, 673–771; Eder1990, 562–86; Cornell 1995, 472–91; Dench 1995, 227–45; Smith 1996, 256–81;Oakley 1997, 735–67; and Oakley 1998, 782–820. With minor variations (e.g.,...
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Page Count: 416
Publication Year: 2005